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Polivka J.,Charles University | Polivka J.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Pesta M.,Charles University | Janku F.,University of Houston
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2015

The optimal choice of cancer therapy depends upon analysis of the tumor genome for druggable molecular alterations. The spatial and temporal intratumor heterogeneity of cancers creates substantial challenges, as molecular profile depends on time and site of tumor tissue collection. To capture the entire molecular profile, multiple biopsies from primary and metastatic sites at different time points would be required, which is not feasible for ethical or economic reasons.Molecular analysis of circulating cell-free DNA offers a novel, minimally invasive method that can be performed at multiple time-points and plausibly better represents the prevailing molecular profile of the cancer. Molecular analysis of this cell-free DNA offers multiple clinically useful applications, such as identification of molecular targets for cancer therapy, monitoring of tumor molecular profile in real time, detection of emerging molecular aberrations associated with resistance to particular therapy, determination of cancer prognosis and diagnosis of cancer recurrence or progression. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Polivka Jr. J.,Charles University | Polivka Jr. J.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Janku F.,University of Houston
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Aberrations in various cellular signaling pathways are instrumental in regulating cellular metabolism, tumor development, growth, proliferation, metastasis and cytoskeletal reorganization. The fundamental cellular signaling cascade involved in these processes, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR), closely related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, is a crucial and intensively explored intracellular signaling pathway in tumorigenesis. Various activating mutations in oncogenes together with the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are found in diverse malignancies across almost all members of the pathway. Substantial progress in uncovering PI3K/AKT/mTOR alterations and their roles in tumorigenesis has enabled the development of novel targeted molecules with potential for developing efficacious anticancer treatment. Two approved anticancer drugs, everolimus and temsirolimus, exemplify targeted inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR in the clinic and many others are in preclinical development as well as being tested in early clinical trials for many different types of cancer. This review focuses on targeted PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling from the perspective of novel molecular targets for cancer therapy found in key pathway members and their corresponding experimental therapeutic agents. Various aberrant prognostic and predictive biomarkers are also discussed and examples are given. Novel approaches to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition together with a better understanding of prognostic and predictive markers have the potential to significantly improve the future care of cancer patients in the current era of personalized cancer medicine. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Vyskocil V.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Koudela K.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Pavelka T.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Stajdlova K.,Charles University | Suchy D.,Charles University
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: Melorheostosis is quite a rare bone disease with still unclear ethiology. Although multifocal affection is highly debilitating with unfavorable prognosis, there is no clear consensus about therapeutical approach. There is still insufficient evidence in the literature for almost a century after the first description. Affected bone has a typical appearance of melting wax. Diagnosis is usually incidental with pain as a leading symptom. Diagnosis itself is relatively easy, routine X-ray examination is sufficient. Even though it could be easily overlooked and mistaken with other diseases. Melorheostosis is incurable, the therapy is mostly focused on maintaining patient quality of life. Presented case is unique in terms of extent of the affection (index finger, metacarp shaft, carpal bones, forearm, humerus and whole scapula) in combination with osteopoikilotic islands in other 3 regions (vertebrae, manubrium sterni and left collar bone). Currently there is only one such a case published in the literature (Campbell), but without osteopoikilotic islands. Case presentation: Melorheostosis was diagnosed in 26-year old female after injury as an incidental finding. This was quite surprising as the patient already suffered by limited movement in the upper limb and pain before the injury. Detailed examination were performed to confirm the diagnosis, no family history was found. Pharmacotherapy with bisphosphonates, non-steroidal antirheumatics and vasodilatans/rheologic drugs seemed to be effective to maintain the relatively good quality of patient life and good performance in daily routine. Questionable is further development of patient performance status and sustainability of conservative treatment in the long term follow up. Conclusion: Conservative treatment with bisphopshonates and COX-2 inhibitors in combination with naftidrofuryl can delay surgery solution. © 2015 Vyskocil et al.


Nemec P.,Masaryk University | Zemanova Z.,General University Hospital | Kuglik P.,Masaryk University | Kuglik P.,Faculty Hospital Brno | And 18 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2012

The prognostic impact of chromosomal abnormalities was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light chain staining (cIg-FISH) and by classical metaphase cytogenetics in a cohort of 207 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were treated with high-dose therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in the CMG2002 clinical trial. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities detected by FISH was as follows: 52.7% for del(13)(q14), 6.5% for del(17)(p13), 18.6% for t(11;14)(q13;q32), 22.8% for t(4;14)(p16;q32) and 45.7% for gain(1)(q21). Metaphase cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype in 19.1% and hyperdiploidy in 21.7% of patients. The overall response rate was not influenced by the presence of any studied chromosomal abnormality. Patients with a complex karyotype, those with translocation t(4;14) and those with gain of the 1q21 locus had a shorter time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Other genomic changes such as translocation t(11;14) and del(13q) had less impact on TTP and OS. In multivariate analysis, complex karyotype, translocation t(4;14) and β 2-microglobulin level > 2.5 mg/L were independent prognostic factors associated with poor overall survival. Their unfavorable prognostic impact was even more pronounced if they were present in combination. Patients with t(4;14) present together with a complex karyotype had the worst prognosis, with a median OS of only 13.2 months, whereas patients with a normal karyotype or karyotype with ≤ 2 chromosomal changes had the best outcome, with 3-year OS of 85.9%. In conclusion, complex karyotype, gain of 1q21 region and translocation t(4;14) are major prognostic factors associated with reduced survival of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Polivka J.,Charles University | Polivka J.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Krakorova K.,Charles University | Krakorova K.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | And 3 more authors.
EPMA Journal | Year: 2016

Neurology is one of the typical disciplines where personalized medicine has been recently becoming an important part of clinical practice. In this article, the brief overview and a number of examples of the use of biomarkers and personalized medicine in neurology are described. The various issues in neurology are described in relation to the personalized medicine and diagnostic, prognostic as well as predictive blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Such neurological domains discussed in this work are neuro-oncology and primary brain tumors glioblastoma and oligodendroglioma, cerebrovascular diseases focusing on stroke, neurodegenerative disorders especially Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Actual state of the art and future perspectives in diagnostics and personalized treatment in diverse domains of neurology are given. © 2016 The Author(s).


Karas M.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Steinerova K.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Lysak D.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Hrabetova M.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | And 5 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2016

Background/Aim: Minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) can influence the results of therapy. With the aim of evaluating the potential role of pre-transplant MRD, we studied the impact of pre-transplant MRD level on the outcome of alloHSCT in patients with AML in complete remission (CR). Patients and Methods: From 2/2005 to 9/2014, 60 patients with a median age of 54 years (range=30-66 years) with normal karyotype-AML harboring nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation [53% Fms-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD)-positive] in first (n=45) or second (n=15) CR underwent myeloablative (n=16) or reduced-intensity (n=44) alloHSCT (27% related, 73% unrelated). The MRD level was determined from bone marrow samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of NPM1 mutations before starting the conditioning regimen. Results: The estimated probabilities of 3-year relapse, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort were 28%, 54%, and 59%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that only age over 63 years and high MRD level affected alloHSCT outcome. Pre-transplant MRD level of 10 mutant copies of NPM1 per 10,000 Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL) copies had the strongest statistical significance, and detection of higher MRD level (>10 NPM1-mutant copies) before alloHSCT was associated with increased overall mortality (hazard ratio=3.71; 95% confidence interval=1.55-9.06; p=0.004). The estimated probabilities of 3-year relapse, EFS, and OS were 6%, 72%, and 75% for patients with a low level of MRD and 48%, 35%, and 40% for patients with a higher level. Conclusion: Our data showed that the pre-transplant level of MRD in patients with normal karyotype AML harboring NPM1 mutation in CR provides important prognostic information, which as an independent prognostic factor predicts transplant results.


Minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) can influence the results of therapy. With the aim of evaluating the potential role of pre-transplant MRD, we studied the impact of pre-transplant MRD level on the outcome of alloHSCT in patients with AML in complete remission (CR).From 2/2005 to 9/2014, 60 patients with a median age of 54 years (range=30-66 years) with normal karyotype-AML harboring nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation [53% Fms-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD)-positive] in first (n=45) or second (n=15) CR underwent myeloablative (n=16) or reduced-intensity (n=44) alloHSCT (27% related, 73% unrelated). The MRD level was determined from bone marrow samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of NPM1 mutations before starting the conditioning regimen.The estimated probabilities of 3-year relapse, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort were 28%, 54%, and 59%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that only age over 63 years and high MRD level affected alloHSCT outcome. Pre-transplant MRD level of 10 mutant copies of NPM1 per 10,000 Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL) copies had the strongest statistical significance, and detection of higher MRD level (>10 NPM1-mutant copies) before alloHSCT was associated with increased overall mortality (hazard ratio=3.71; 95% confidence interval=1.55-9.06; p=0.004). The estimated probabilities of 3-year relapse, EFS, and OS were 6%, 72%, and 75% for patients with a low level of MRD and 48%, 35%, and 40% for patients with a higher level.Our data showed that the pre-transplant level of MRD in patients with normal karyotype AML harboring NPM1 mutation in CR provides important prognostic information, which as an independent prognostic factor predicts transplant results.


Anghel R.,Institutul Oncologic Bucharest | Bachmann A.,University of Basel | Beksac M.,Ankara University | Brodowicz T.,Medical University of Vienna | And 10 more authors.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2013

Summary: Bisphosphonates have been a mainstay in the treatment of cancer-related bone disease and have greatly reduced the risk of skeletal complications. More recently, clinical studies suggested additional benefits of denosumab over zoledronic acid in the prevention of skeletal related events. Similar adverse event profiles have been reported for bisphosphonates and denosumab, with infrequent occurrences of osteonecrosis of the jaw with both agents, higher incidence of renal deterioration with zoledronic acid, and higher incidence of hypocalcaemia with denosumab. Based on current evidence, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines do not recommend one drug class over the other in patients with metastatic bone disease. Denosumab, however, may present advantages over bisphosphonates in patients suffering from chronic renal insufficiency. Further research and growing clinical experience will refine the evidence based on which decisions in daily clinical practice can be taken. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Suchy D.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Dostalek M.,University of Rhode Island | Perinova I.,Faculty Hospital Ostrava | Brozmanova H.,Faculty Hospital Ostrava | And 3 more authors.
Biomedical Papers | Year: 2011

Background. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunomodulatory agent used in standard immunosuppressive regimens in solid organ transplantations as well as in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus and psoriasis. Its immunosuppressive activity is primarily due to parent drug. However, following oral administration, absorption is incomplete and varies between individuals. Further, there is a dearth of pharmacokinetic data for CsA in autoimmune patients compared to transplant recipients. Aim. The goal of this study was to investigate the single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of CsA and two main primary metabolites, AM1 and AM4N, in patients with rheumatic/autoimmune diseases. Methods. Thirty-eight subjects, average age (years± SD) 46.8 (±11.6) years with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated SpA were included in an observational open study. The single dose pharmacokinetics (area under the concentration-time curve of CsA and its metabolites (AUC) and other PK parameters) were determined over a 24 h period following oral administration of 1.3 mg/kg oral CsA. Two CsA formulations-Neoral and the Czech generic substitute Consupren ®, were used. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on all 38 patients after administration of a single dose of CsA (1.34 mg/ kg/day). In 12 patients only, a second series of blood samples was taken to calculate monitored PK parameters under steady state conditions. Results. Pharmacokinetic assessment showed AUC 0-24 3009.66 ± 1449.78 ng/ml.h and C max 827.84 ± 425.84 after ad-ministration of a single dose of CSA, AUC 0-24 3698.50 ± 2147 ng/ml.h and C max 741 ± 493 ng/ml after repeated dose. The proportion of the AM1 metabolite (AUC 0-24) after a single dose of CsA corresponded to 40% of the parent compound and to approximately 35% of the parent compound in steady state conditions. The proportion of AM4N metabolite was low in both conditions and represented only 3 and 4.5% after a single dose and at steady state, respectively. Conclusion. The pharmacokinetic data (AUC CsA, C max) for the whole 24 h interval were similar to the published findings, mainly under steady state conditions. The AM1 (AUC 0-24) after a single dose of CsA and in steady state conditions represented about 40% of the parent drug. The ratio of AM4N metabolite was low in both conditions. © D. Suchy, M. Dostalek, I. Perinova, H. Brozmanova, M. Grundmann, V. Vyskocil, O. Mayer.


Polivka J.,Charles University | Polivka J.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Rohan V.,Faculty Hospital Plzen | Topolcan O.,Faculty Hospital Plzen
Anticancer Research | Year: 2014

Oligodendrogliomas are uncommon tumors in neurooncology that represent about 5% of primary brain malignancies. Their high sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy was observed a long time ago. Nonetheless, the evidence-based proof of the significantly longer survival in patients with oligodendrogliomas treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comparison to radiotherapy-alone did not exist. The long-term follow-up of two landmark phase III clinical trials: RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951, recently demonstrated favorable effects of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine) in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas carrying the chromosomal mutation of co-deletion of 1p/19q. There is also an increasing role of other molecular biomarkers, such as mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene promoter methylation, or glioma genome cytosine-phosphate-guanine islands methylator phenotype. The analysis of molecular genetics in oligodendrogliomas is now recommended as an important part of the management of these tumors and together with the novel chemotherapeutic regimens means a paradigm shift in current clinical practice in neurooncology.

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