Polivka J.,Charles University |
Karlikova M.,Faculty Hospital in Pilsen |
Topolcan O.,Faculty Hospital in Pilsen
EPMA Journal | Year: 2014
The main goal of personalized medicine is the individualized approach to the patient's treatment. It could be achieved only by the integration of the complexity of novel findings in diverse " omics" disciplines, new methods of medical imaging, as well as implementation of reliable biomarkers into the medical care. The implementation of personalized medicine into clinical practice is dependent on the adaptation of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education to these principles. The situation in the education of personalized medicine in the Czech Republic is analyzed together with novel educational tools that are currently established in our country. The EPMA representatives in the Czech Republic in cooperation with the working group of professionals at the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague have implemented the survey of personalized medicine awareness among students of Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen-the " Personalized Medicine Questionnaire" . The results showed lacking knowledge of personalized medicine principles and students' will of education in this domain. Therefore, several educational activities addressed particularly to medical students and young physicians were realized at our facility with very positive evaluation. These educational activities (conferences, workshops, seminars, e-learning and special courses in personalized medicine (PM)) will be a part of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education, will be extended to other medical faculties in our country. The " Summer School of Personalized Medicine in Plzen 2015" will be organized at the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen as the first event on this topic in the Czech Republic. © 2014 Polivka et al.
Polivka Jr. J.,Charles University |
Polivka Jr. J.,University of West Bohemia |
Polivka J.,Charles University |
Rohan V.,Charles University |
And 2 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor in adults, exhibiting high mortality. Standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide) has only limited effectiveness. The progress in genomics regarding GBM, in the detection of new markers of oncogenesis, abnormalities in signalling pathways, tumor microenvironment, and pathological angiogenesis over the past decade are briefly discussed. The role of novel prognostic in this review biomarkers [isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, CpG island methylator phenotype, promoter methylation status of the MGMT (O-6-methylguanine-methyltransferase) gene] is also discussed. New targeted therapeutic approaches are classified into several functional subgroups, such as inhibitors of growth factors and their receptors, inhibitors of proteins of intracellular signaling pathways, epigenetic gene-expressing mechanisms, inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis, tumor imunotherapy and vaccines. Finally novel possibilities for GBM treatment are summarized in this review.
Novotny Z.,Faculty Hospital in Pilsen |
Presl J.,Faculty Hospital in Pilsen |
Kucera R.,Charles University |
Topolcan O.,Charles University |
And 4 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012
Aim: The first aim of the project was to evaluate the benefits of the determination of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) index for primary detection of ovarian cancer in a population of Czech women. The second aim was to study the advantages HE4, cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and ROMA index for distinguishing between benign and malignant tumors. Aware of the age distribution of ovarian cancer, we focused on postmenopausal patients. Patients and Methods: Our group of patients consisted of 256 females, 21 with ovarian cancer and 235 with benign ovarian tumors. All diagnoses were histologically verified. We determined the serum levels of HE4 and CA125 and calculated the ROMA2 index for postmenopausal women. Serum levels of the analytes were measured using an Architect 1000i instrument. Serum samples were collected prior to surgery or any other form of treatment and the results of the two groups of patients were compared (malignant vs. benign). Results: There was a significant difference in the serum levels for all parameters studied between the groups of patients with malignant and those with benign diagnoses (Wilcoxon test, p<0.0001). When all parameters were evaluated at 95% specificity, the HE4 cut-off was 112 pmol/l at a sensitivity of 71.42%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 55.56%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.14% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9152. The CA125 cut-off was 81 IU/l at a sensitivity of 80.95%, a PPV of 58.62%, a NPV of 98.23% and an AUC of 0.9731. ROMA2 index had a cut-off 37.70% at a sensitivity of 85.71%, a PPV of 62.06%, a NPV of 98.65% and an AUC of 0.9803. The highest diagnostic efficiency was achieved by the ROMA2 index. Conclusion: Determination of HE4 along with CA125 and ROMA2 index calculation is a suitable method for the improvement of the primary detection of ovarian cancer. This approach also improves the differential diagnostic possibilities for distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors.
Merglova V.,Charles University |
Koberova-Ivancakova R.,Charles University |
Broukal Z.,Charles University |
Dort J.,Faculty Hospital in Pilsen
BMC Oral Health | Year: 2014
Background: Recently, the dental literature has focused mainly on the microbial colonization of healthy full-term infants and their mothers or caretakers. However, oral microbial acquisition by premature infants has not been adequately investigated, and the correlation between pre-term birth and the presence of cariogenic and periodontal pathogens has not been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the presence and quantities of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavities of 12-month-old infants and compare the occurrence of these microbes between a cohort of pre-term infants with very low birthweights and a control cohort comprising full-term infants.Methods: The research cohort was composed of 69 one-year-old infants, of whom 24 were born prematurely with very low birthweights and 45 of whom were carried to full term. Information regarding the infants' gestational age, mode of delivery, general health status, birthweight and antibiotic use were obtained from hospital records and through oral interviews. At 12 months of age, both groups of infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples from the dorsum of the tongue and dental plaque samples were collected. The microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp., Actinomyces spp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum) were identified and their quantities were evaluated using a PCR-based method. The chi-squared and Fisher's factorial tests were used for the statistical evaluations.Results: The infants had a high prevalence of cariogenic microbes and of Fusosbacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Cariogenic microbes were detected in 91.7% of the very low birthweight infants and in all full-term infants. Periodontal pathogens were present in 83% of the pre-term infants and in 96% of the full-term infants. A significant difference was found between the cohorts in terms of the presence of S. mutans. Most of the very low birthweight infants had negative values of this microbe, while the full-term infants had positive values.Conclusions: This study confirms the early transmission of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens to the oral cavity of one-year-old infants and a higher prevalence of S. mutans in full-term infants than in premature infants. © 2014 Merglova et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kinkorova J.,Faculty Hospital in Pilsen |
Kinkorova J.,Charles University
EPMA Journal | Year: 2016
Biobanks are an important compound of personalized medicine and strongly support the scientific progress in stratification of population and biomarker discovery and validation due to progress in personalized medicine. Biobanks are an essential tool for new drug discoveries and drug development. Biobanks play an important role in the whole process of patient prevention and prediction, follow-up, and therapy monitoring and optimalization. Biobanks have the specificity in that they cover multidisciplinary approach to the human health combining biological and medical approaches, as well as informative bioinformatics technologies, computationing, and modeling. The importance of biobanks has during the last decade increased in variety and capacity from small collections of samples to large-scale national or international repositories. Collected samples are population-based, disease-specific or rare diseases originating from a diverse profile of individuals. There are various purposes of biobanks, such as diagnostics, pharmacology, or research. Biobanks involve, store, and operate with specific personal information, and as a consequence, such a diversity of biobanking is associated with a broad spectrum of ethical and legal issues. Biobanks are an international phenomenon because any single country, state, or society at the moment is not able to cover all issues involving the whole biobank problematic. Biobanks have an enormous innovative potential in the whole process of biomedical research in the twenty-first century. © 2016 Kinkorová.
PubMed | Faculty Hospital in Pilsen and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association | Year: 2016
This study aimed to investigate changes of corrected QT (QTc) interval during acute ischemic stroke and its correlation with high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), neurological outcome, and 1-year mortality.We registered electrocardiogram in 69 patients immediately after admission to the intensive care unit and then after 24 and 48 hours. Computed tomography was performed on admission to determine brain infarct size and localization. Neurological outcome was assessed by modified Rankin scale (mRS) at discharge.Forty-five (65.2%) patients had prolonged QTc at baseline; only 18 (26.1%) patients had prolonged QTc after 48 hours. Baseline QTc was not associated with neurological outcome (P=.27). However, prolonged QTc after 48 hours was associated with worse mRS at discharge (4.5 [4.0-6.0] versus 2.0 [1.0-3.0]; P<.0001). Patients who deceased during hospitalization (n=7 [10.1%]) as compared with survivors had more frequently prolonged QTc after 48 hours (38.9 versus 0%; P<.0001), higher level of hsTnI (48.4 [36.1-75.0] versus 8.6 [3.4-26.5]; P=.003), and BNP (334 [224-866] versus 109 [30-190]; P=.014). In univariate analysis, 1-year mortality was associated with prolonged QTc after 48 hours, hsTnI, and BNP. In multivariate analysis, only BNP remained to be associated with 1-year mortality (odds ratio 3.41, 95% confidence interval 1.06-11.03).QTc interval in patients with acute ischemic stroke is a dynamic parameter. Prolonged QTc after 48 hours, but not baseline QTc, correlated with neurological outcome and 1-year mortality. Patients with prolonged QTc had higher level of hsTnI.
PubMed | Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, Georgetown University and Charles University
Type: | Journal: Journal of proteomics | Year: 2016
Alternations in the glycosylation of proteins have been described in connection with several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer. Analytical tools, which use combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, allow precise and sensitive description of these changes. In this study, we use MRM and FT-ICR operating in full-MS scan, to determine ratios of intensities of specific glycopeptides in HCC, colorectal cancer, and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. Haptoglobin, hemopexin and complement factor H were detected after albumin depletion and the N-linked glycopeptides with fucosylated glycans were compared with their non-fucosylated forms. In addition, sialylated forms of an O-linked glycopeptide of hemopexin were quantified in the same samples. We observe significant increase in fucosylation of all three proteins and increase in bi-sialylated O-glycopeptide of hemopexin in HCC of hepatitis C viral (HCV) etiology by both LC-MS methods. The results of the MRM and full-MS scan FT-ICR analyses provide comparable quantitative readouts in spite of chromatographic, mass spectrometric and data analysis differences. Our results suggest that both workflows allow adequate relative quantification of glycopeptides and suggest that HCC of HCV etiology differs in glycosylation from colorectal cancer and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.The article compares N- and O-glycosylation of several serum proteins in different diseases by a fast and easy sample preparation procedure in combination with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results show successful glycopeptides relative quantification in a complex peptide mixture by the high resolution instrument and the detection of glycan differences between the different types of cancer diseases. The presented method is comparable to conventional targeted MRM approach but allows additional curation of the data.
PubMed | Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, National Institute of Public Health in Prague and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Central European journal of public health | Year: 2017
Human exposure to organic pollutants (some of them also called endocrine disruptors) can be associated with adverse metabolic health outcomes including type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to compare the urine levels of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in subgroups of patients with metabolic syndrome composed of patients with and without three important components of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes).We have investigated 24 hr urine samples of 168 patients with metabolic syndrome from the Metabolic Outpatient Department of General University Hospital in Prague. Using standard metabolic syndrome criteria, we classified patients as dyslipidemic (n=87), hypertensive (n=96), and type 2 diabetic (n=58). Bisphenol A and 15 metabolites of phthalates were evaluated in relation to creatinine excretion. Samples were analysed with enzymatic cleavage of glucuronide using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in one laboratory with external quality control.Four metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate showed significantly higher levels in diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients (p<0.001, p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.005, respectively). The differences remained significant after adjustment to hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and BMI. No difference was found between either the hypertensive and non-hypertensive or dyslipidemic and non-dyslipidemic patients. There was no significant relation of bisphenol A level to diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and BMI.Urine levels of four phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics independently on specified predictors. Phthalate levels can be in relation to beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients but this study is not able to show if the relation is causal.
PubMed | Faculty Hospital in Pilsen and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The EPMA journal | Year: 2015
The main goal of personalized medicine is the individualized approach to the patients treatment. It could be achieved only by the integration of the complexity of novel findings in diverse omics disciplines, new methods of medical imaging, as well as implementation of reliable biomarkers into the medical care. The implementation of personalized medicine into clinical practice is dependent on the adaptation of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education to these principles. The situation in the education of personalized medicine in the Czech Republic is analyzed together with novel educational tools that are currently established in our country. The EPMA representatives in the Czech Republic in cooperation with the working group of professionals at the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague have implemented the survey of personalized medicine awareness among students of Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen-the Personalized Medicine Questionnaire. The results showed lacking knowledge of personalized medicine principles and students will of education in this domain. Therefore, several educational activities addressed particularly to medical students and young physicians were realized at our facility with very positive evaluation. These educational activities (conferences, workshops, seminars, e-learning and special courses in personalized medicine (PM)) will be a part of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education, will be extended to other medical faculties in our country. The Summer School of Personalized Medicine in Plzen 2015 will be organized at the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen as the first event on this topic in the Czech Republic.
PubMed | Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, University of Hradec Kralove and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2015
MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding RNA molecules regulating diverse cellular processes essential in carcinogenesis. Little is known regarding miRs in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate miRs in relation to the clinico pathological features of site-specific HNSCC.The study comprised of 51 patients with HNSCC (23 oropharyngeal, 24 laryngeal and 4 hypopharyngeal carcinomas). Total RNA was extracted from tumor tissue and normal squamous epithelium using the miRNeasy FFPE Kit. A quantitative estimation of let-7a, miR-21, miR-200c, miR-34a, miR-375 was performed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the TagMan MicroRNA assay. Additionally, p16 expression was detected by immuno histo chemistry.Significant differences of let-7a, miR-200c, miR-34a levels between oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancers were found (p<0.05). Compared to non-neoplastic tissues, miR-21, miR-200c, miR-34a were up-regulated and miR-375 was down-regulated in tumors of all sites. MiR-34a tumor levels significantly correlated with oropharyngeal origin (p=0.0284) and p16 positivity (p=0.0218).The microRNA profile seems to play a potential role in the pathobiology of oropharyngeal and laryngeal HNSCC. Up-regulation of miR34a in p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer has not been so far described and additional studies are warranted.