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Norris V.,Faculte Des Science Of Luniversite Of Rouen | Verrier C.,Faculte Des Science Of Luniversite Of Rouen | Feuilloley M.,Faculte Des Science Of Luniversite Of Rouen
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery | Year: 2016

Background: Hyperstructures are large assemblies of molecules and macromolecules that perform functions such as metabolism (including RNA and protein synthesis and degradation), transport, DNA replication, cell division, signalling and chemotaxis. Methods: Such hyperstructures might be manipulated by hybrid metabolites or hybolites made by a pairwise, covalently linked combination of the thousands of small molecules involved in metabolism and signalling. Results: Here, we review recent evidence for hyperstructures in prokaryotes and for interactions between hyperstructures as a determinant of the phenotype. We also mention extending hybolite therapy to eukaryotes, consider new designs for hybolites, and discuss relevant patents. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Delaune A.,Faculte Des Science Of Luniversite Of Rouen | Delaune A.,Faculte Of Medecine Pharmacie Of Luniversite Of Rouen | Cabin-Flaman A.,Faculte Des Science Of Luniversite Of Rouen | Legent G.,Faculte Des Science Of Luniversite Of Rouen | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Imaging single proteins within cells is challenging if the possibility of artefacts due to tagging or to recognition by antibodies is to be avoided. It is generally believed that the biological properties of proteins remain unaltered when 14N isotopes are replaced with 15N. 15N-enriched proteins can be localised by dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (D-SIMS). We describe here a novel imaging analysis algorithm to detect a few 15N-enriched proteins - and even a single protein - within a cell using D-SIMS. The algorithm distinguishes statistically between a low local increase in 15N isotopic fraction due to an enriched protein and a stochastic increase due to the background. To determine the number of enriched proteins responsible for the increase in the isotopic fraction, we use sequential D-SIMS images in which we compare the measured isotopic fractions to those expected if 1, 2 or more enriched proteins are present. The number of enriched proteins is the one that gives the best fit between the measured and the expected values. We used our method to localise 15N-enriched thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) proteins delivered to COS-7 cells. We show that both a single TDG and a single RXRα can be detected. After 4 h incubation, both proteins were found mainly in the nucleus; RXRα as a monomer or dimer and TDG only as a monomer. After 7 h, RXRα was found in the nucleus as a monomer, dimer or tetramer, whilst TDG was no longer in the nucleus and instead formed clusters in the cytoplasm. After 24 h, RXRα formed clusters in the cytoplasm, and TDG was no longer detectable. In conclusion, single unmodified proteins in cells can be counted and localised with 50 nm resolution by combining D-SIMS with our method of analysis. © 2013 Delaune et al. Source

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