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Docampo M.J.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Cabrera J.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Segales J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bassols A.,Facultat de Veterinaria
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2014

The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a scaffold for cell growth, impacts on cellular behaviour and plays an important role in pathological conditions. Several components of the ECM of lymphoid tissues have been shown to be crucial in the maturation, differentiation and migration of lymphocytes and other immune cells and, therefore, in the development of immune responses. Little is known of the composition and function of the ECM in porcine lymphoid tissues. The present study characterizes immunohistochemically the expression of several ECM-related molecules (i.e. hyaluronan [HA] and its receptor CD44, tenascin-C [TN-C] and versican) in primary and secondary lymphoid organs of healthy pigs and animals affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). These ECM molecules displayed a highly defined expression pattern in healthy animals, suggesting that they may have a role in the compartmentalization of immune cells within lymphoid tissues. HA was abundant in the medulla of the thymus and follicles of secondary organs; CD44 and TN-Cwere present in the thymic medulla and parafollicular areas of secondary lymphoid organs; however, there was minimal expression of versican in healthy tissues. In PCV2-SD-affected animals, HA and CD44 showed a similar but more diffuse distribution. TN-C was increased in the T-cell-dependent areas and in tonsillar crypts, and versican was more abundantly expressed, with expression restricted to vascular structures and trabeculae and also surrounding tonsillar crypts. The altered expression in PCV2-SD-affected pigs was most probably related to a higher content of connective tissue secondary to tissue destruction and remodelling attempts as part of the disease process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Fernandez A.I.,INIA | Perez-Montarelo D.,INIA | Barragan C.,INIA | Ramayo-Caldas Y.,Facultat de Veterinaria | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: The traditional strategy to map QTL is to use linkage analysis employing a limited number of markers. These analyses report wide QTL confidence intervals, making very difficult to identify the gene and polymorphisms underlying the QTL effects. The arrival of genome-wide panels of SNPs makes available thousands of markers increasing the information content and therefore the likelihood of detecting and fine mapping QTL regions. The aims of the current study are to confirm previous QTL regions for growth and body composition traits in different generations of an Iberian x Landrace intercross (IBMAP) and especially identify new ones with narrow confidence intervals by employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip in linkage analyses.Results: Three generations (F3, Backcross 1 and Backcross 2) of the IBMAP and their related animals were genotyped with PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A total of 8,417 SNPs equidistantly distributed across autosomes were selected after filtering by quality, position and frequency to perform the QTL scan. The joint and separate analyses of the different IBMAP generations allowed confirming QTL regions previously identified in chromosomes 4 and 6 as well as new ones mainly for backfat thickness in chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 14 and 17 and shoulder weight in chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 13; and many other to the chromosome-wide signification level. In addition, most of the detected QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals, making easier the selection of positional candidate genes.Conclusions: The use of higher density of markers has allowed to confirm results obtained in previous QTL scans carried out with microsatellites. Moreover several new QTL regions have been now identified in regions probably not covered by markers in previous scans, most of these QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals. Finally, prominent putative biological and positional candidate genes underlying those QTL effects are listed based on recent porcine genome annotation. © 2012 Fernandez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Corominas J.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Ramayo-Caldas Y.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Castello A.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Munoz M.,INIA | And 2 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family members catalyse the formation of long-chain acyl-CoA from fatty acid, ATP and CoA, thus playing an important role in both de novo lipid synthesis and fatty acid catabolism. Previous studies in our group evaluated ACSL4 as a positional candidate gene for quantitative trait loci located on chromosome X in an Iberian × Landrace cross. A DQ144454:c.2645G>A SNP located in the 3' untranslated region of the ACSL4 gene was associated with the percentages of oleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the functional implication of this genetic variant. An expression analysis was performed for 120 individuals with different genotypes for the DQ144454:c.2645G>A polymorphism using real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between genotypes were identified in liver, with the ACSL4 mRNA expression levels higher in animals with the G allele than in animals with the A allele. A SNP genome-wide association study with ACSL4 relative expression levels showed significant positions on chromosomes 6 and 12. Description of positional candidate genes for ACSL4 regulation on chromosomes 6 and 12 is provided. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Munoz M.,Research Center sarrollo Of Cerdo Iberico | Pena R.N.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Folch J.M.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Folch J.M.,Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2013

A previous study allowed the identification of two QTL regions at positions 11-34 cM (QTL1) and 68-76 cM (QTL2) on porcine chromosome SSC12 affecting several backfat fatty acids in an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross. In the current study, different approaches were performed in order to better delimit the quoted QTL regions and analyze candidate genes. A new chromosome scan, using 81 SNPs selected from the Porcine 60KBeadChip and six previously genotyped microsatellites have refined the QTL positions. Three new functional candidate genes (ACOX1, ACLY, and SREBF1) have been characterized. Moreover, two putative promoters of porcine ACACA gene have also been investigated. New isoforms and 24 SNPs were detected in the four candidate genes, 19 of which were genotyped in the population. ACOX1 and ACLY SNPs failed to explain the effects of QTL1 on palmitic and gadoleic fatty acids. QTL2, affecting palmitoleic, stearic, and vaccenic fatty acids, maps close to the ACACA gene location. The most significant associations have been detected between one intronic (g.53840T > C) and one synonymous (c.5634T > C) ACACA SNPs and these fatty acids. Complementary analyses including ACACA gene expression quantification and association studies in other porcine genetic types do not support the expected causal effect of ACACA SNPs. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Ballester M.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Ballester M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Revilla M.,Facultat de Veterinaria | Puig-Oliveras A.,Facultat de Veterinaria | And 4 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2016

APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in an Iberian × Landrace backcross population. The APOA2:c.131T>A polymorphism, located in exon 3 of APOA2 and determining a missense mutation, was associated with the percentage of hexadecenoic acid [C16:1(n–9)], linoleic acid [C18:2(n–6)], α-linolenic acid [C18:3(n–3)], dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [C20:3(n–6)] and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in backfat. Furthermore, this SNP was associated with the global mRNA expression levels of APOA2 in liver and was used as a marker to determine allelic expression imbalance by pyrosequencing. We determined an overexpression of the T allele in heterozygous samples with a mean ratio of 2.8 (T/A), observing a high variability in the allelic expression among individuals. This result suggests that complex regulatory mechanisms, beyond a single polymorphism (e.g. epigenetic effects or multiple cis-acting polymorphisms), may be regulating APOA2 gene expression. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics


PubMed | Facultat de Veterinaria and Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal genetics | Year: 2016

APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in an Iberian Landrace backcross population. The APOA2:c.131T>A polymorphism, located in exon 3 of APOA2 and determining a missense mutation, was associated with the percentage of hexadecenoic acid [C16:1(n-9)], linoleic acid [C18:2(n-6)], -linolenic acid [C18:3(n-3)], dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [C20:3(n-6)] and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in backfat. Furthermore, this SNP was associated with the global mRNA expression levels of APOA2 in liver and was used as a marker to determine allelic expression imbalance by pyrosequencing. We determined an overexpression of the T allele in heterozygous samples with a mean ratio of 2.8 (T/A), observing a high variability in the allelic expression among individuals. This result suggests that complex regulatory mechanisms, beyond a single polymorphism (e.g. epigenetic effects or multiple cis-acting polymorphisms), may be regulating APOA2 gene expression.


Llonch P.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Rodriguez P.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Gispert M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Dalmau A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exposure to the gas mixtures of 70% nitrogen (N 2) and 30% carbon dioxide (CO 2; 70N30C), 80% N 2 and 20% CO 2 (80N20C) and 85% N 2 and 15% CO 2 (85N15C) on aversion, stunning effectiveness and carcass, as well as meat quality in pigs, and to compare them with the commercial stunning of 90% CO 2 (90C). A total of 68 female pigs were divided into four groups and stunned with one of the gas mixtures. During the exposure to the gas, behavioural variables (retreat attempts, escape attempts, gasping, loss of balance, muscular excitation and vocalizations) were recorded, and at the end of the stunning, corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing were assessed. After slaughter, meat quality parameters such as pH at 45 min post mortem (pH45) and at 24 h post mortem (pHu), electrical conductivity, drip loss and colour, in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles were measured, and the presence of ecchymosis on the hams was noted. The PROC MIXED and the PROC GENMOD of SAS® were used to analyse the parametric and binomial variables, respectively. The 'gas mixture' was always considered a fixed effect and the 'live weight' as a covariate. To assess the correlation between meat quality and behaviour measures, PROC CORR was used. Pigs exposed to 90C showed a higher percentage of escape attempts and gasping, a lower percentage of vocalization and shorter muscular excitation phase than pigs exposed to the other N 2 and CO 2 mixtures (P < 0.05). After stunning, no pig exposed to 90C showed corneal reflex or rhythmic breathing, whereas 85% and 92% of the animals exposed to N 2 and CO 2 mixtures showed corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing, respectively. Animals stunned with 80N20C and 85N15C had a lower pH45 (P < 0.01) than animals exposed to 90C. Electrical conductivity in the SM muscle was lower (P < 0.001) in 90C and 70N30C pigs than in 80N20C and 85N15C pigs, whereas in LT, it was lower (P < 0.05) in 90C pigs than in 85N15C. As the CO 2 concentration of the gas mixture was decreased, the prevalence of exudative pork increased. Twenty-five percent of animals exposed to N 2 and CO 2 mixtures (n = 68) had ecchymosis in their carcasses, whereas no animal stunned with 90C had ecchymosis. In conclusion, although N 2 and CO 2 stunning exhibit fewer signs of aversion than 90C, their induction time to unconsciousness is longer, and this may negatively affect meat and carcass quality. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.


PubMed | Facultat de Veterinaria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal genetics | Year: 2012

Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family members catalyse the formation of long-chain acyl-CoA from fatty acid, ATP and CoA, thus playing an important role in both de novo lipid synthesis and fatty acid catabolism. Previous studies in our group evaluated ACSL4 as a positional candidate gene for quantitative trait loci located on chromosome X in an Iberian Landrace cross. A DQ144454:c.2645G>A SNP located in the 3 untranslated region of the ACSL4 gene was associated with the percentages of oleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the functional implication of this genetic variant. An expression analysis was performed for 120 individuals with different genotypes for the DQ144454:c.2645G>A polymorphism using real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between genotypes were identified in liver, with the ACSL4 mRNA expression levels higher in animals with the G allele than in animals with the A allele. A SNP genome-wide association study with ACSL4 relative expression levels showed significant positions on chromosomes 6 and 12. Description of positional candidate genes for ACSL4 regulation on chromosomes 6 and 12 is provided.

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