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Moya-Alvarez V.,University of Paris Descartes | Moya-Alvarez V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Abellana R.,Facultat de Medicina | Cot M.,University of Paris Descartes | Cot M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Albeit pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) poses a potential risk for over 125 million women each year, an accurate review assessing the impact on malaria in infants has yet to be conducted. In addition to an effect on low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity, PAM determines foetal exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in utero and is correlated to congenital malaria and early development of clinical episodes during infancy. This interaction plausibly results from an ongoing immune tolerance process to antigens in utero, however, a complete explanation of this immune process remains a question for further research, as does the precise role of protective maternal antibodies. Preventive interventions against PAM modify foetal exposure to P. falciparum in utero, and have thus an effect on perinatal malaria outcomes. Effective intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) diminishes placental malaria (PM) and its subsequent malaria-associated morbidity. However, emerging resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is currently hindering the efficacy of IPTp regimes and the efficacy of alternative strategies, such as intermittent screening and treatment (IST), has not been accurately evaluated in different transmission settings. Due to the increased risk of clinical malaria for offspring of malaria infected mothers, PAM preventive interventions should ideally start during the preconceptual period. Innovative research examining the effect of PAM on the neurocognitive development of the infant, as well as examining the potential influence of HLA-G polymorphisms on malaria symptoms, is urged to contribute to a better understanding of PAM and infant health. © 2014 Moya-Alvarez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Espinel-Ingroff A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Chakrabarti A.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Chowdhary A.,University of Delhi | Cordoba S.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr C G Malbran | And 12 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) have not been established for the Mucorales and any antifungal agent. In lieu of CBPs, epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are proposed for amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole and four Mucorales species. Wildtype (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined with available pooled CLSI MICs from 14 laboratories (Argentina, Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States) as follows: 10 Apophysomyces variabilis, 32 Cunninghamella bertholletiae, 136 Lichtheimia corymbifera, 10 Mucor indicus, 123 M. circinelloides, 19 M. ramosissimus, 349 Rhizopus arrhizus, 146 R. microsporus, 33 Rhizomucor pusillus, and 36 Syncephalastrum racemosum isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MICs were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs comprising ≥95% and ≥97.5% of the modeled populations were as follows: amphotericin B ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for M. circinelloides were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for R. arrhizus were 2 and 4 μg/ml, and those for R. microsporus were 2 and 2 μg/ml, respectively; posaconazole ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2, those for M. circinelloides were 4 and 4, those for R. arrhizus were 1 and 2, and those for R. microsporus were 1 and 2, respectively; both itraconazole ECVs for R. arrhizus were 2 μg/ ml. ECVs may aid in detecting emerging resistance or isolates with reduced susceptibility (non-WT MICs) to the agents evaluated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Espinel-Ingroff A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Colombo A.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Cordoba S.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr C G Malbran | Dufresne P.J.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | And 14 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

The CLSI epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of antifungal agents are available for various Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and the Mucorales. However, those categorical endpoints have not been established for Fusarium spp., mostly due to the difficulties associated with collecting sufficient CLSI MICs for clinical isolates identified according to the currently recommended molecular DNA-PCR-based identification methodologies. CLSI MIC distributions were established for 53 Fusarium dimerum species complex (SC), 10 F. fujikuroi, 82 F. proliferatum, 20 F. incarnatum-F. equiseti SC, 226 F. oxysporum SC, 608 F. solani SC, and 151 F. verticillioides isolates originating in 17 laboratories (in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, and the United States). According to the CLSI guidelines for ECV setting, ECVs encompassing ≥97.5% of pooled statistically modeled MIC distributions were as follows: for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml (F. verticillioides) and 8 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC and F. solani SC); for posaconazole, 2 μg/ml (F. verticillioides), 8 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC), and 32 μg/ml (F. solani SC); for voriconazole, 4 μg/ml (F. verticillioides), 16 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC), and 32 μg/ml (F. solani SC); and for itraconazole, 32 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC and F. solani SC). Insufficient data precluded ECV definition for the other species. Although these ECVs could aid in detecting non-wild-type isolates with reduced susceptibility to the agents evaluated, the relationship between molecular mechanisms of resistance (gene mutations) and MICs still needs to be investigated for Fusarium spp. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Espinel-Ingroff A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Arendrup M.C.,Statens Serum Institute | Pfaller M.A.,University of Iowa | Bonfietti L.X.,Adolfo Lutz Institute | And 20 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 =g/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 =g/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead. Copyright © 2013 White. Source


Pfaller M.A.,JMI Laboratories | Pfaller M.A.,University of Iowa | Espinel-Ingroff A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Bustamante B.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 15 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Since epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) using CLSI MICs from multiple laboratories are not available for Candida spp. and the echinocandins, we established ECVs for anidulafungin and micafungin on the basis of wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) for 8,210 Candida albicans, 3,102 C. glabrata, 3,976 C. parapsilosis, 2,042 C. tropicalis, 617 C. krusei, 258 C. lusitaniae, 234 C. guilliermondii, and 131 C. dubliniensis isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered from 15 different laboratories in Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs encompassing 97.5% of the statistically modeled population for anidulafungin and micafungin were, respectively, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata, 8 and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis, 0.12 and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25 and 0.25 g/ml for C. krusei, 1 and 0.5 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 8 and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.12 and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Previously reported single and multicenter ECVs defined in the present study were quite similar or within 1 2-fold dilution of each other. For a collection of 230 WT isolates (no fks mutations) and 51 isolates with fks mutations, the species-specific ECVs for anidulafungin and micafungin correctly classified 47 (92.2%) and 51 (100%) of the fks mutants, respectively, as non-WT strains. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin and micafungin due to fks mutations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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