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Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney | Atkinson F.S.,University of Sydney | Gahler R.J.,Factors Group R and D | Kacinik V.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background:Viscous fibre in food has established health benefits, but few functional fibre preparations are both effective and palatable. Our objective was to determine the most effective dose, formulation and timing of consumption of a novel fibre supplement (PolyGlycopleX (PGX)) in reducing postprandial glycaemia.Subjects/Methods: Three trials were undertaken, each with 10 subjects (8M and 8F; age 24.4±2.6 years). Granular supplement was tested at four doses (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) with breakfast (study 1). Granular and capsule forms of the supplement were given in a single dose (5 g for granules and 4.5 g in capsules) at 60, 45, 30, 15 and 0 before, and 15 min after a bread meal (study 2). Capsules at increasing doses (1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 g) were consumed with the evening meal to determine effects on glucose tolerance at breakfast (study 3). Incremental area under the blood glucose curve was determined. Results: Granular PGX at breakfast time at doses of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g reduced the incremental area under the curve by up to 50% in a linear dose-response fashion (P<0.001). The granular form of PGX (5 g), but not the capsules, reduced glycaemia by up to 28% when consumed from 45 to 15 min (P<0.001). Capsules containing 3, 4.5 and 6 g PGX consumed with the evening meal reduced glycaemia at breakfast by up to 28% (P<0.001).Conclusions:PGX has biologically important, dose-related effects on acute and delayed (second meal) postprandial glycaemia. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Solah V.A.,Curtin University Australia | Meng X.,Curtin University Australia | Meng X.,Flinders University | Wood S.,Curtin University Australia | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: The assessment of satiety effects on foods is commonly performed by untrained volunteers marking their perceived hunger or fullness on line scales, marked with pre-set descriptors. The lack of reproducibility of satiety measurement using this approach however results in the tool being unable to distinguish between foods that have small, but possibly important, differences in their satiety effects. An alternate approach is used in sensory evaluation; panellists can be trained in the correct use of the assessment line-scale and brought to consensus on the meanings of descriptors used for food quality attributes to improve the panel reliability. The effect of training on the reliability of a satiety panel has not previously been reported. Method: In a randomised controlled parallel intervention, the effect of training in the correct use of a satiety labelled magnitude scale (LMS) was assessed versus no-training. The test-retest precision and reliability of two hour postprandial satiety evaluation after consumption of a standard breakfast was compared. The trained panel then compared the satiety effect of two breakfast meals containing either a viscous or a non-viscous dietary fibre in a crossover trial. Results: A subgroup of the 23 panellists (n = 5) improved their test re-test precision after training. Panel satiety area under the curve, "after the training" intervention was significantly different to "before training" (p < 0.001). Reliability of the panel determined by intraclass correlation (ICC) of test and retest showed improved strength of the correlation from 0.70 preintervention to 0.95 post intervention. The trained "satiety expert panel" determined that a standard breakfast with 5g of viscous fibre gave significantly higher satiety than with 5g non-viscous fibre (area under curve (AUC) of 478.2, 334.4 respectively) (p ≤ 0.002). Conclusion: Training reduced between panellist variability. The improved strength of test-retest ICC as a result of the training intervention suggests that training satiety panellists can improve the discriminating power of satiety evaluation. © 2015 Solah et al.

Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney | Atkinson F.S.,University of Sydney | Gahler R.J.,Factors Group R and D | Kacinik V.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The development of lower-glycaemic index (GI) foods requires simple, palatable and healthy strategies. The objective of the present study was to determine the most effective dose of a novel viscous fibre supplement (PGX ®) to be added to starchy foods to reduce their GI. Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water-3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2•5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water. GI testing according to ISO Standard 26 642-2010 was used to determine the reduction in GI. PGX ® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0•001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2•5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX ®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods. © 2011 The Authors.

Reimer R.A.,University of Calgary | Maathuis A.J.H.,TNO | Venema K.,TNO | Lyon M.R.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2014

Many of the health benefits associated with dietary fiber are attributed to their fermentation by microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentability of the functional fiber PolyGlyopleX® (PGX®) in vitro. A validated dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro system simulating the conditions in the proximal large intestine (TIM-2) was used. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) consumption in the system was used as an indicator of fermentability and SCFA and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) production was determined. NaOH consumption was significantly higher for Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) than PGX, which was higher than cellulose (p = 0.002). At 32, 48 and 72 h, acetate and butyrate production were higher for FOS and PGX versus cellulose. Propionate production was higher for PGX than cellulose at 32, 48, 56 and 72 h and higher than FOS at 72 h (p = 0.014). Total BCFA production was lower for FOS compared to cellulose, whereas production with PGX was lower than for cellulose at 72 h. In conclusion, PGX is fermented by the colonic microbiota which appeared to adapt to the substrate over time. The greater propionate production for PGX may explain part of the cholesterol-lowering properties of PGX seen in rodents and humans. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Yong M.K.,Curtin University Australia | Solah V.A.,Curtin University Australia | Johnson S.K.,Curtin University Australia | Meng X.,Flinders University | And 7 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2016

The post-prandial satiety response and "second-meal effect" of a viscous fibre supplement PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) was evaluated in a single-blind, randomised controlled crossover study of 14 healthy adult women. The two hour post-prandial satiety response, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of perceived hunger/fullness score versus post-prandial time, of a standardised evening meal with concurrent intake of either PGX softgel or rice flour softgel (control) was determined. On the following morning, after an overnight fast, the four hour satiety response to a standardised breakfast with no softgel supplementation was assessed. A significantly higher satiety response (AUC) to the standard dinner for the PGX-supplemented dinner compared with the control dinner (p=0.001) was found. No significant difference (p=0.09) was observed in the satiety response (AUC) of the breakfast regardless of which supplemented-dinner had been consumed prior, however the p value indicated a trend towards a higher response to the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner. The fullness scores of the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner at 15, 30, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240min post-prandial were significantly higher than those for the breakfast following the control dinner (p=<0.001, 0.007, 0.009, 0.009, 0.049, 0.03, 0.003 and <0.001 respectively). PGX supplementation at dinner increased the satiety effects of both the dinner itself and the subsequent un-supplemented breakfast; a "second meal effect" indicting the potential for this fibre supplement to induce extended satiety. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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