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Trier, Germany

Kneist W.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Kauff D.W.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Rahimi Nedjat R.K.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Rink A.D.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease | Year: 2010

Purpose: The aim of this animal study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative pelvic nerve stimulation on internal anal sphincter electromyographic signals in order to evaluate its possible use for neuromonitoring during nerve-sparing pelvic surgery. Methods: Eight pigs underwent low anterior rectal resection. The intersphincteric space was exposed, and the internal (IAS) and external anal sphincter (EAS) were identified. Electromyography of both sphincters was performed with bipolar needle electrodes. Intermittent bipolar electric stimulation of the inferior hypogastric plexus and the pelvic splanchnic nerves was carried out bilaterally. The recorded signals were analyzed in its frequency spectrum. Results: In all animals, electromyographic recordings of IAS and EAS were successful. Intraoperative nerve stimulation resulted in a sudden amplitude increase in the time-based electromyographic signals of IAS (1.0 (0.5-9.0) μV vs. 4.0 (1.0-113.0) μV) and EAS (p∈<∈0.001). The frequency spectrum of IAS in the resting state ranged from 0.15 to 5 Hz with highest activity in median at 0.77 Hz (46 cycles/min). Pelvic nerve stimulation resulted in an extended spectrum ranging from 0.15 to 20 Hz. EAS signals showed higher frequencies mainly in a range of 50 to 350 Hz. However, after muscle relaxation with pancuronium bromide, only the low frequency spectrum of the IAS signals was still present. Conclusions: Intraoperative verification of IAS function by stimulation of pelvic autonomic nerves is possible. The IAS electromyographic response could be used to monitor pelvic autonomic nerve preservation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Sartor J.,Fachhochschule Trier | Zimmer K.-H.,Ehemals Wasserwirtschaftsverwaltung Rheinland Pfalz | Busch N.,Bundesanstalt fur Gewasserkunde Koblenz
Wasser und Abfall | Year: 2010

Principally, the measurement of more than 900 high-water marking the historical events in the Mosel River Valley were reconstructed and made plausible by means of hydraulic calculations as well as historical reports. The database for statistical analysis was expanded. The flooding hazard can be better clarified for the potentially affected riverbank residents. Source

Pfrang A.,European Commission | Didas S.,Fachhochschule Trier | Tsotridis G.,European Commission
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

In proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), gas diffusion layers (GDL) are crucial for fuel cell performance and more specifically for the removal of the product water where the microporous layer (MPL), as one component of the GDL, plays a significant rule. X-ray computed tomography was applied for the 3D imaging of a gas diffusion layer-Sigracet GDL 35 BC-at sub-μm resolution to improve the knowledge of its 3D microstructure. The study was focused on the identification of the MPL material within the GDL. A segmentation based on a simple gray level thresholding is not appropriate as the gray level ranges for air, carbon fibres and MPL overlap. Consequently, more sophisticated approaches for segmentation were tested; diffusion filtering followed by a gray level thresholding gave the best results. Using this approach, fractures in the MPL layer could be visualised and it was also shown that the MPL can penetrate far into the GDL. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Fachhochschule Trier and University of Cologne | Date: 2010-10-05

A process for operating an internal combustion engine or a nozzle includes producing a fuel mixture in-situ. The fuel mixture consists of a polar component A, a nonpolar fuel component B, an amphiphilic component C, and an auxiliary component D. The fuel mixture is produced in a high-pressure region of an injection system of an internal combustion engine or of a nozzle within 10 seconds of an injection operation. The fuel mixture is injected into the internal combustion engine or the nozzle. A pressure is in a range of from 100 to 4,000 bar.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-8.2-01 | Award Amount: 5.21M | Year: 2008

The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate high-efficient polygeneration of electricity, heat, solid fuels and high-value compost/ fertilisers from sewage sludge and greenery waste mixed to biomass residues, thereby offering a new, safe, environmentally friendly and cost-effective path for the disposal of sewage sludge, maximising energy output, greenhouse gas reduction, cost-effectiveness and new chances for SME. Compared to the existing routes of sewage sludge treatment, the proposed concept allows achieving a very high overall energy efficiency by (1) use of low-temperature environmental heat and heat from the co-composting process for drying sewage sludge thereby replacing high temperature heat from a combustion process, (2) a highly efficient gasification process, (3) saving of transport energy due to a better overall material flow management. Thus, the concept brings down disposal costs of sewage sludge. The polygeneration demonstration plant will be set up on an existing compost production facility. The latter will be able to process larger amounts of sewage sludge than at present, to produce less but higher quality compost as well as pellets and/or briquettes as storable substitute fuel and to deliver electricity to the grid. Heat will be used on site for drying processes and for a district heating grid of a neighbouring industrial park. CO2 emissions are reduced by replacement of fossil fuels and directly in the composting process. Minerals and nutrients will be recovered from the ash and used to enhance the fertilising value of the compost after removal of heavy metals and other harmful fractions. 5 out of the 8 consortium partners are SME. The exploitation plan includes the creation of a two further SME for heat delivery and worldwide planning and marketing of similar plants. Replication of the concept in the 3,000 compost plants in the EU would allow additional generation of at least 56 TWh of electricity, heat and solid fuels.

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