Hojbota C.I.,Romanian Institute of Isotopic And Molecular Technology |
Tosa V.,Romanian Institute of Isotopic And Molecular Technology |
Mercea P.V.,FABES Forschungs GmbH
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013
We present a numerical model based on finite differences to solve the problem of chemical impurity migration within a multilayer spherical system. Migration here means diffusion of chemical species in conditions of concentration partitioning at layer interfaces due to different solubilities of the migrant in different layers. We detail here the numerical model and discuss the results of its implementation. To validate the method we compare it with cases where an analytic solution exists. We also present an application of our model to a practical problem in which we compute the migration of caprolactam from the packaging multilayer foil into the food.
Seiler A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging |
Bach A.,European Commission JRC Unit Chemical Assessment and Testing |
Driffield M.,UK Environment Agency |
Paseiro Losada P.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
And 3 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014
Today most foods are available in a packed form. During storage, the migration of chemical substances from food packaging materials into food may occur and may therefore be a potential source of consumer exposure. To protect the consumer, standard migration tests are laid down in Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. When using those migration tests and applying additional conservative conventions, estimated exposure is linked with large uncertainties including a certain margin of safety. Thus the research project FACET was initiated within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission with the aim of developing a probabilistic migration modelling framework which allows one (1) to calculate migration into foods under real conditions of use; and (2) to deliver realistic concentration estimates for consumer exposure modelling for complex packaging materials (including multi-material multilayer structures). The aim was to carry out within the framework of the FACET project a comprehensive systematic study on the solubility behaviour of foodstuffs for potentially migrating organic chemicals. Therefore a rapid and convenient method was established to obtain partition coefficients between polymer and food, KP/F. With this method approximately 700 time-dependent kinetic experiments from spiked polyethylene films were performed using model migrants, foods and ethanol-water mixtures. The partition coefficients of migrants between polymer and food (KP/F) were compared with those obtained using ethanol-water mixtures (KP/F's) to investigate whether an allocation of food groups with common migration behaviour to certain ethanol-water mixtures could be made. These studies have confirmed that the solubility of a migrant is mainly dependent on the fat content in the food and on the ethanol concentration of ethanol-water mixtures. Therefore dissolution properties of generic food groups for migrants can be assigned to those of ethanol-water mixtures. All foodstuffs (including dry foods) when allocated to FACET model food group codes can be classified into a reduced number of food categories each represented by a corresponding ethanol-water equivalency. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Maia J.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Rodriguez-Bernaldo de Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Cruz J.M.,University of Vigo |
And 9 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016
The mass transport process (migration) of a model substance, benzophenone (BZP), from LDPE into selected foodstuffs at three temperatures was studied. A mathematical model based on Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion was used to simulate the migration process and a good correlation between experimental and predicted values was found. The acquired results contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon and the parameters so-derived were incorporated into the migration module of the recently launched FACET tool (Flavourings, Additives and Food Contact Materials Exposure Tool). The migration tests were carried out at different time–temperature conditions, and BZP was extracted from LDPE and analysed by HPLC-DAD. With all data, the parameters for migration modelling (diffusion and partition coefficients) were calculated. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients (within both the polymer and the foodstuff) are greatly affected by the temperature and food’s physical state, whereas the partition coefficient was affected significantly only by food characteristics, particularly fat content. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-4-01;KBBE-2007-2-4-02 | Award Amount: 8.89M | Year: 2008
Flavouring, Additive and Food Contact Material Exposure Task: FACET FACET will deliver to the European Community a sustainable surveillance system, to estimate target food chemical intake. The project will consist of three main groupings of its 20 partners. The Chemicals group will prioritise the flavourings, additives and food contact materials for investigation and the food categories applicable to them. The Food group will take those food categories and will establish food ingredient occurrence data through the primary collection of food packaging material and the recording of all food ingredients in purchased foods. It will also create tired food consumption databases linked to the target food categories. In addition, where intake data is limited, models of regional diets will be developed. A group on chemical concentration will provide data on the concentration of target chemicals in target food groups. Databases on food intake, food chemical occurrence and food chemical concentration will be linked in algorithms which will be converted into computer code for the estimation of probabilistic exposure to target food chemical intake.
Zulch A.,FABES Forschungs GmbH |
Piringer O.,FABES Forschungs GmbH
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010
This study carried out migration investigations with different spiked and non-spiked paper and board packaging materials in contact with foodstuffs and food simulants in the temperature range between -18°C and 40°C. The aim was to deepen the understanding of the migration behaviour of target substances in paper and board fibres. Components and contaminants of paper and board with different molecular weight and chemical structure were selected as target migrants. From the kinetic migration studies, diffusion and partition coefficients were derived by using software for modelling migration in multilayer materials. On the basis of these results, for the first time a model for the migration from paper and board into foods and simulants was developed by adapting the validated diffusion model for plastics. In contrast to the migration in plastic materials, where the migrants are solved and homogeneously distributed in the polymer matrix, mass transfer in paper and board is a more complex phenomenon, because the migrants can be adsorbed on the cellulose surface with different strength. The most important finding of the study was that for a correct modelling of the experimental results in many cases paper and board must be regarded as a two-layer system: the main mass of paper and board (B1) defines the core layer with high diffusion rates, and a thin second layer (B2) represents the surface region of the paper and board with decreased diffusion rates due to the slow desorption. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.