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Nottingham, United Kingdom

Joshi L.,University College London | Shanmuganathan V.A.,Moorfields Eye Hospital | Kneebone R.L.,Imperial College London | Amoaku W.,Eye Center
Eye | Year: 2011

Aims Cognitive factors (eg, academic achievement) have had a significant role in selecting postgraduate surgical trainees in the past. This project sought to determine the role of a national undergraduate ophthalmology prize examination (Duke-Elder examination) in the selection of postgraduate ophthalmology trainees. This would also serve as a quality assurance exercise for the assessment, in which the ultimate Aim is to encourage trainees into ophthalmology. Methods A retrospective analysis of the top 20 ranked candidates in the Duke-Elder examination from 1989 to 2005 (except 1995) was carried out to determine which of them subsequently entered the ophthalmic training and General Medical Council Specialist Registers. Results Out of the top 20 candidates in the exam, 29.5% went into specialist training in ophthalmology. Some appeared in the top 20 more than once, with 56% of them going into ophthalmic training, but they had a similar median time to enter training as those who appeared in the top 20 once. There was no significant evidence to suggest that the overall median ranking scores between the UK medical schools differed (P0.23; Kruskal-Wallis test). However, there was a marked difference in frequency of top 20 candidates from each medical school, which could not be explained by the size of the medical school alone.Conclusion It is difficult to conclude from these findings the importance that the Duke-Elder examination has in the selection of trainees into ophthalmology. The role of cognitive factors in selection into postgraduate medical/surgical training is discussed, along with the potential academic criteria, which may influence interview scores. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Dua H.S.,University of Nottingham | Dua H.S.,Eye Center | Faraj L.A.,University of Nottingham | Branch M.J.,University of Nottingham | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Background: The trabecular meshwork (TM) located at the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye contributes to aqueous drainage. A novel layer in the posterior part of the human cornea has recently been reported (the pre-Descemet's layer (Dua's layer (PDL)). We examined the peripheral part of this layer in relation to the origin of the TM.Methods: The PDL and TM of 19 human donor eyes and one exenterated sample were studied. Samples were examined by light and electron microscopy (EM) for tissue architecture and by immunohistology for four matricellular proteins, five collagen types and CD34. Results:EM revealed that beams of collagen emerged from the periphery of PDL on the anterior surface of the Descemet's membrane and divided and subdivided to continue as the beams of the TM. Long-spacing collagen was seen in the PDL and TM. Trabecular cells (CD34-ve) associated with basement membrane were seen in the peripheral part of the PDL and corresponded to the start of the separation of the collagen lamellae of PDL. Collagen VI was present continuously in PDL and extended into the TM. Matricellular proteins were seen predominantly in the TM with only laminin extending into the periphery of PDL. Conclusions: This study provides an insight into the origins of the collagen core of the TM as an extension of the PDL of the cornea. This finding adds to the knowledge base of the TM and cornea and has the potential to impact future research into the TM and glaucoma. Source

Del Castillo J.M.B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kaercher T.,Augenarztpraxis | Mansour K.,Tjongerschans Hospital | Wylegala E.,University of Silesia | Dua H.,Eye Center
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is widespread and has significant impact on patients’ quality of life. Eyelid hygiene is the mainstay of treatment but is unstandardized and requires commitment from the patient and encouragement from the ophthalmologist. Blephasteam® is an eyelid warming device designed to be an easy-to-use and standardized treatment for MGD. In the present study, 73 patients were treated for 21 days with twice daily Blephasteam® sessions. The primary efficacy variable, a symptomatology visual analog scale score, declined from 63.07±21.23 (mean ± standard deviation) on day 0 to 41.90±25.49 on day 21. There were also improvements in a number of secondary efficacy variables including subjective ocular symptoms and clinical signs and symptoms of MGD and dry eye, though tear film breakup time and tear osmolarity were not improved. Global efficacy was assessed as satisfactory or very satisfactory in 83.8% of cases. Patient-reported subjective ocular symptoms declined during the study, and a majority of patients rated the efficacy of Blephasteam® as satisfactory or very satisfactory. Most patients found the device comfortable and were able to continue with normal activities (reading, watching TV, using a computer) during the Blephasteam® session. No safety or tolerability issues were identified. © 2014 Benitez del Castillo et al. Source

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