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North Tustin, CA, United States

Otranto D.,University of Bari | Giannelli A.,University of Bari | Latrofa M.S.,University of Bari | Dantas-Torres F.,University of Bari | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Infections with Onchocerca lupi nematodes are diagnosed sporadically in the United States. We report 8 cases of canine onchocercosis in Minnesota, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. Identification of 1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene haplotype identical to 1 of 5 from Europe suggests recent introduction of this nematode into the United States © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Source

Kuchtey J.,Vanderbilt University | Kunkel J.,Vanderbilt University | Esson D.,Eye Care for Animals | Sapienza J.S.,Long Island Veterinary Specialists | And 4 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Purpose. Previously, we mapped the disease locus in the beagle model of autosomal recessive primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to a 4-Mb interval on chromosome 20, and identified a Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 as the candidate disease-causing variant. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 causes glaucoma by genotyping dogs of various breeds affected and unaffected by primary glaucoma. Methods. Dogs of various breeds, affected or unaffected with primary glaucoma, were genotyped for the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10, as well as 7 other nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in other genes in the beagle POAG locus that segregate with disease. Alternate allele frequencies were calculated with 95% confidence intervals and comparisons made to expected allele frequency relative to disease prevalence or between cases and controls. Results. For the nonsynonymous SNPs other than the ADAMTS10 variant, control dogs were identified that were homozygous for the alternative alleles, ruling out those variants as causative. None of the nonsynonymous SNPs were found associated with primary glaucoma in American cocker spaniels. The Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 was the only variant with minor allele frequency consistent with the prevalence of primary glaucoma in the general beagle population. The only dog found homozygous for the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 was an affected beagle, unrelated to the POAG colony. Conclusions. These findings support the Gly661Arg mutation of ADAMTS10 as the likely cause of POAG in beagles. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Murphy C.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Murphy C.J.,University of California at Davis | Bentley E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Miller P.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 14 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011

Purpose. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is characterized by inflammation and decreased production of tears containing increased levels of cytokines. The release occurs in the setting of conjunctival and lacrimal gland inflammation, potentially mediated by the interaction between lymphocyte function- associated antigen (LFA)-1, a cell surface protein found on lymphocytes, and its cognate ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. SAR 1118 is a novel LFA-1 antagonist and may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of KCS. The following studies were performed to assess the in vitro activity of SAR 1118 and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of topical SAR 1118 for the treatment of idiopathic canine KCS. Method. Pharmacodynamics were assessed by measuring the ability of SAR 1118 to inhibit Jurkat T-cell binding with recombinant human ICAM-1 and to inhibit cytokine release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. For the assessment of clinical efficacy, 10 dogs diagnosed with idiopathic KCS were treated with SAR 1118 1% topical ophthalmic solution three times daily for 12 weeks. Schirmer's tear test (STT) was used to measure tear production. Results. SAR 1118 demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of Jurkat T-cell attachment, inhibition of lymphocyte activation, and release of inflammatory cytokines, particularly the Th1, Th2, and Th17 T-cell cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-17F, respectively. Mean STT values increased from 3.4 mm during week 1 to 5.8 mm at week 12 (P < 0.025). No SAR 1118-related adverse events were observed. Conclusions. SAR 1118 appears to be an effective anti-inflammatory treatment for KCS. Additional studies are warranted to establish the efficacy of SAR 1118 for the treatment of KCS in humans. © 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Wooff P.J.,Eye Care for Animals | Norman J.C.,Eye Care for Animals
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Purpose: To determine whether dogs with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs) would heal faster and with an improved comfort score following linear grid keratotomy (LGK) combined with corneal contact lens (Acrivet™) wear when compared to dogs having the LGK procedure alone. Study design: Prospective study. Methods: Twenty-seven boxer dogs (27 eyes) diagnosed with a SCCEDs were enrolled in the study. A LGK was performed on all dogs under dexmedetomidine and butorphanol sedation. Fourteen eyes were randomly assigned to receive a corneal contact lens. The dogs were evaluated typically at 7, 10, and 14 days or until the ulceration was healed. Client surveys were completed by the owners to subjectively assess comfort level and contact lens retention. Statistical analyses were performed utilizing generalized linear models and survival analysis with the Wilcoxon-Gehan test to evaluate group differences. Results: All ulcers healed after the LGK procedure. Dogs with bandage contact lenses had a statistically significant (P = 0.035) decrease in median healing time (7 days (95% CI [7,9]) compared to those without contact lenses (10 days (95% CI [7,12])). There was no difference in subjective comfort score between treatment groups. Early contact loss occurred in 28.6% (95% CI [8.4%, 58.1%]) of dogs. All of the Acrivet™ ruler corneal measurements agreed to within 1 mm (95% CI [87.2%, 100%]) of the Jameson caliper measurements of horizontal corneal diameter. Conclusions: The use of corneal bandage contact lenses significantly decreased median healing time although there was no effect on subjective comfort score. The Acrivet™ ruler measurements were accurate in determining corneal diameter and therefore contact lens size. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists. Source

Holve D.L.,Eye Care for Animals | Mundwiler K.E.,Biological Test Center | Pritt S.L.,Absorption Systems
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2011

Laboratory rabbits are commonly used for ocular drug and device studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of spontaneous ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits with respect to sex, breed, and supplier. We retrospectively evaluated ophthalmic examination records of rabbits screened between April 2008 and April 2010. These 1840 records represented 572 black Dutch belted (DB), 1022 New Zealand white (NZW), and 246 NZW x New Zealand red F1 crosses (WRF1). Rabbits were between 6 and 16 wk of age and had been received from 5 suppliers. Ocular structures evaluated were the cornea, lens, iris and vitreous with respect to sex, breed and supplier. A total of 177 rabbits (9.6%) and 233 eyes (6.3%) were effected. Of total rabbits, 15.3% males and 7.3% females were affected. The most common structure affected was the cornea in 5.7% of rabbits, (DB 11.7%, NZW 3.0%, and NZR 3.3%). The lens at 3.6% was second most common (DB 2.1%, NZW 4.6%, and NZR 3.3%). Both iris (0.2%) and vitreous (0.3%) were not significantly affected. Significant sex-breeder-supplier combinations were: cornea DB supplier D, supplier D females, supplier D males, DB males and NZR females; and lens: NZW females; and at least one affected ocular structure: NZW supplier D, supplier D females, DB males, NZW females, and NZR females. Breed, sex, and supplier were significant variables of ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits. Investigators should consider each of these variables when choosing rabbits for ocular studies. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

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