Eye Care for Animals

Tustin, CA, United States

Eye Care for Animals

Tustin, CA, United States

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Holve D.L.,Eye Care for Animals | Mundwiler K.E.,Biological Test Center | Pritt S.L.,Absorption Systems
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2011

Laboratory rabbits are commonly used for ocular drug and device studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of spontaneous ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits with respect to sex, breed, and supplier. We retrospectively evaluated ophthalmic examination records of rabbits screened between April 2008 and April 2010. These 1840 records represented 572 black Dutch belted (DB), 1022 New Zealand white (NZW), and 246 NZW x New Zealand red F1 crosses (WRF1). Rabbits were between 6 and 16 wk of age and had been received from 5 suppliers. Ocular structures evaluated were the cornea, lens, iris and vitreous with respect to sex, breed and supplier. A total of 177 rabbits (9.6%) and 233 eyes (6.3%) were effected. Of total rabbits, 15.3% males and 7.3% females were affected. The most common structure affected was the cornea in 5.7% of rabbits, (DB 11.7%, NZW 3.0%, and NZR 3.3%). The lens at 3.6% was second most common (DB 2.1%, NZW 4.6%, and NZR 3.3%). Both iris (0.2%) and vitreous (0.3%) were not significantly affected. Significant sex-breeder-supplier combinations were: cornea DB supplier D, supplier D females, supplier D males, DB males and NZR females; and lens: NZW females; and at least one affected ocular structure: NZW supplier D, supplier D females, DB males, NZW females, and NZR females. Breed, sex, and supplier were significant variables of ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits. Investigators should consider each of these variables when choosing rabbits for ocular studies. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.


PubMed | University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Eye Care for Animals and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) is one of the leading causes of currently incurable canine vision loss diagnosed by veterinary ophthalmologists. The disease is characterized by acute onset of blindness due to loss of photoreceptor function, extinguished electroretinogram with an initially normal appearing ocular fundus, and mydriatic pupils which are slowly responsive to bright white light, unresponsive to red, but responsive to blue light stimulation. In addition to blindness, the majority of affected dogs also show systemic abnormalities suggestive of hyperadrenocorticism, such as polyphagia with resulting obesity, polyuria, polydipsia, and a subclinical hepatopathy. The pathogenesis of SARDS is unknown, but neuroendocrine and autoimmune mechanisms have been suggested. Therapies that target these disease pathways have been proposed to reverse or prevent further vision loss in SARDS-affected dogs, but these treatments are controversial. In November 2014, the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists Vision for Animals Foundation organized and funded a Think Tank to review the current knowledge and recently proposed ideas about disease mechanisms and treatment of SARDS. These panel discussions resulted in recommendations for future research strategies toward a better understanding of pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and potential therapy for this condition.


Otranto D.,University of Bari | Giannelli A.,University of Bari | Latrofa M.S.,University of Bari | Dantas-Torres F.,University of Bari | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Infections with Onchocerca lupi nematodes are diagnosed sporadically in the United States. We report 8 cases of canine onchocercosis in Minnesota, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. Identification of 1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene haplotype identical to 1 of 5 from Europe suggests recent introduction of this nematode into the United States © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.


PubMed | Eye Care for Animals and Annapolis flyer cab
Type: | Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2016

To evaluate the clinical outcome of cats treated surgically for aqueous humor misdirection syndrome.A retrospective analysis of cats treated surgically between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2013, for aqueous humor misdirection syndrome was performed. Signalment, medical therapy, eyes affected, intraocular pressures prior to and after surgery, surgical procedures performed, postoperative complications, and visual status were evaluated.Seven cats (nine eyes) fit the inclusion criteria. Six of seven cats were female, and five of seven cats were diagnosed with bilateral aqueous humor misdirection syndrome. Three surgical approaches were evaluated as follows: (i) phacoemulsification and posterior capsulotomy, (ii) phacoemulsification, posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy, and (iii) phacoemulsification, posterior capsulotomy, anterior vitrectomy, and endocyclophotocoagulation. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.9 years. Seven of nine eyes had controlled intraocular pressure (25 mmHg) during the first 6 months postoperatively. All cats were visual with controlled intraocular inflammation at 1 year postoperatively; however, one eye had an elevated intraocular pressure. All cats were continued on topical antiglaucoma and anti-inflammatory medications following surgery with the mean number of drops per day decreasing from 3.9 drops/day prior to surgery to 2.2 drops/day postoperatively.Surgical management for feline aqueous humor misdirection syndrome may be a viable option to maintain a visual and normotensive status in cats that no longer have successful control of intraocular pressure with medical therapy.


Kuchtey J.,Vanderbilt University | Kunkel J.,Vanderbilt University | Esson D.,Eye Care for Animals | Sapienza J.S.,Long Island Veterinary Specialists | And 4 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Purpose. Previously, we mapped the disease locus in the beagle model of autosomal recessive primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to a 4-Mb interval on chromosome 20, and identified a Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 as the candidate disease-causing variant. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 causes glaucoma by genotyping dogs of various breeds affected and unaffected by primary glaucoma. Methods. Dogs of various breeds, affected or unaffected with primary glaucoma, were genotyped for the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10, as well as 7 other nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in other genes in the beagle POAG locus that segregate with disease. Alternate allele frequencies were calculated with 95% confidence intervals and comparisons made to expected allele frequency relative to disease prevalence or between cases and controls. Results. For the nonsynonymous SNPs other than the ADAMTS10 variant, control dogs were identified that were homozygous for the alternative alleles, ruling out those variants as causative. None of the nonsynonymous SNPs were found associated with primary glaucoma in American cocker spaniels. The Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 was the only variant with minor allele frequency consistent with the prevalence of primary glaucoma in the general beagle population. The only dog found homozygous for the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 was an affected beagle, unrelated to the POAG colony. Conclusions. These findings support the Gly661Arg mutation of ADAMTS10 as the likely cause of POAG in beagles. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Dees D.D.,Eye Care for Animals | Fritz K.J.,Eye Care for Animals | Maclaren N.E.,Eye Care for Animals | Esson D.W.,Eye Care for Animals | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To evaluate long-term efficacy of antiglaucoma medications with or without combined topical anti-inflammatory treatment in preventing increased intraocular pressure and clinical signs of glaucoma in eyes considered at risk of the development of the disease. Methods: Retrospective analysis identified 88 canine patients presenting with unilateral acute congestive primary angle-closure glaucoma (IOP > 25 mm Hg) and gonioscopic findings of pectinate ligament dysplasia and/or narrow or closed iridocorneal angle in the contralateral nonglaucomatous eye. Patients with histopathologic confirmation of pectinate ligament dysplasia or angle closure in the initial glaucomatous eye receiving prophylactic medical therapy in the contralateral eye were included. Time to medical failure for each antiglaucoma medication and efficacy of the combination therapy were evaluated. Results: The most commonly affected pure-breds were the American Cocker Spaniel (20.4%) and Basset Hound (11.36%). The patients receiving demecarium bromide 0.125% had the longest estimated median time to medical failure at 330.0 days, followed by latanoprost 0.005%, dorzolamide hydrochloride 2.0%, and demecarium bromide 0.25% at 284.0 days, 272.5 days, and 143.0 days, respectively. The estimated median time to medical failure for patients receiving topical antiglaucoma and anti-inflammatory medication was 324.0 days versus 195.0 days in patients receiving antiglaucoma medication alone. Survival analysis showed no statistical significance. Conclusions: None of the four antiglaucoma medications evaluated statistically delayed medical failure when compared to each other. Although significance was not achieved, our data suggest that adjunctive use of topical anti-inflammatory medications may be beneficial in these cases. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


Wooff P.J.,Eye Care for Animals | Norman J.C.,Eye Care for Animals
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Purpose: To determine whether dogs with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs) would heal faster and with an improved comfort score following linear grid keratotomy (LGK) combined with corneal contact lens (Acrivet™) wear when compared to dogs having the LGK procedure alone. Study design: Prospective study. Methods: Twenty-seven boxer dogs (27 eyes) diagnosed with a SCCEDs were enrolled in the study. A LGK was performed on all dogs under dexmedetomidine and butorphanol sedation. Fourteen eyes were randomly assigned to receive a corneal contact lens. The dogs were evaluated typically at 7, 10, and 14 days or until the ulceration was healed. Client surveys were completed by the owners to subjectively assess comfort level and contact lens retention. Statistical analyses were performed utilizing generalized linear models and survival analysis with the Wilcoxon-Gehan test to evaluate group differences. Results: All ulcers healed after the LGK procedure. Dogs with bandage contact lenses had a statistically significant (P = 0.035) decrease in median healing time (7 days (95% CI [7,9]) compared to those without contact lenses (10 days (95% CI [7,12])). There was no difference in subjective comfort score between treatment groups. Early contact loss occurred in 28.6% (95% CI [8.4%, 58.1%]) of dogs. All of the Acrivet™ ruler corneal measurements agreed to within 1 mm (95% CI [87.2%, 100%]) of the Jameson caliper measurements of horizontal corneal diameter. Conclusions: The use of corneal bandage contact lenses significantly decreased median healing time although there was no effect on subjective comfort score. The Acrivet™ ruler measurements were accurate in determining corneal diameter and therefore contact lens size. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


PubMed | Eye Care for Animals
Type: | Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2016

To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) estimates in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicuga pacos) using rebound (TonoVetComplete ophthalmic examinations were performed on forty healthy alpacas (80 eyes). IOP measurements using both TonoVetThe mean IOP values SD via rebound tonometry were 14.20 mm 2.58 mm OD, 14.22 mm 2.90 mm OS, and 14.21 2.73 mmHg OU (range 8.67-20.67 mmHg). The IOP values SD via applanation tonometry were 12.49 2.81 mmHg OD, 12.53 2.79 mmHg OS, and 12.51 2.78 mmHg OU (range 6.00-19.33 mmHg). There was a significant difference (P = 0.002) in the IOP obtained between the tonometers, with the rebound tonometer having a 1.7 mmHg (0.69-2.71 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI)) higher IOP compared to the applanation tonometer. No significant differences in IOP were found between OD and OS. Age, gender, and breed did not significantly affect IOP values.IOP readings from the rebound tonometer were statistically higher than those from the applanation tonometer; however, this is not considered clinically significant. The accuracy of rebound tonometry in diseased alpaca eyes remains to be determined.


PubMed | Eye Care for Animals, University of Wisconsin - Madison and Guardian Veterinary Center
Type: | Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2016

This case series describes the ocular, clinical and histologic manifestations of disseminated Aspergillosis in two dogs. Two dogs presented for severe unilateral panophthalmitis and secondary glaucoma with positive Aspergillus spp. titers. Case 1 showed no clinicopathologic systemic symptoms of fungal dissemination, however, case 2 was affected with acute renal failure. The affected eye of case 1 did not respond to medical therapy and was enucleated for comfort. The affected eye of case 2 responded to aggressive topical and systemic medical therapies, however, the patient was euthanized for acute renal failure. Globes were collected for histologic evaluation at the time of death. Histology of both revealed panophthalmitis with presence of significant intraocular hemorrhage, multifocal fungal granulomas, retinal and optic nerve changes consistent with secondary glaucoma, rupture of the anterior lens capsule, and fungal invasion and colonization of the intralenticular space. These cases represent a unique and devastating ocular manifestation of disseminated Aspergillosis. Cases presenting with uveitis and secondary glaucoma of unknown origin, especially with confirmed or suspected lens capsular rupture, should have serologic testing for this infectious agent.


PubMed | Eye Care for Animals and University of Missouri
Type: | Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology | Year: 2016

To compare the degree and duration of corneal anesthesia of a novel viscous ophthalmic lidocaine hydrochloride preparation vs. two commonly used ophthalmic anesthetic preparations.Each subject was randomly selected to receive 2 of 4 treatments at 2 different time periods separated by a 1 week washout: 3.5% lidocaine hydrochloride gel (AktenTwenty-four normal dogs (48 eyes) were entered into the study. Mean duration of maximal anesthesia was significantly greater at 34.2 min with tetracaine compared to 21.5 min and 19 min with proparacaine and lidocaine respectively. Corneal sensitivity was significantly decreased from baseline for up to 70 min with tetracaine and 55 min with both proparacaine and lidocaine. All lidocaine-treated eyes had transient blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia. Ten out of 24 tetracaine-treated eyes had conjunctival hyperemia with 4 of these having concurrent chemosis.Tetracaine provided a significantly longer duration of corneal anesthesia than proparacaine or lidocaine. Tetracaine and lidocaine were associated with more ocular side effects than proparacaine, although these were mild and transient. None.

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