Edinburgh, United Kingdom
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Walker A.C.,Heriot - Watt University | Hutt D.A.,Loughborough University | McCarthy A.,Ferbane | Fernandez F.A.,UCL | And 20 more authors.
Circuit World | Year: 2010

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research in a project aimed at developing manufacturing techniques for integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit boards (OPCB) including the motivation for this research, the progress, the achievements and the interactions between the partners. Design/methodology/approach - Several polymer waveguide fabrication methods were developed including direct laser write, laser ablation and inkjet printing. Polymer formulations were developed to suit the fabrication methods. Computer-aided design (CAD) tools were developed and waveguide layout design rules were established. The CAD tools were used to lay out a complex backplane interconnect pattern to meet practical demanding specifications for use in a system demonstrator. Findings - Novel polymer formulations for polyacrylate enable faster writing times for laser direct write fabrication. Control of the fabrication parameters enables inkjet printing of polysiloxane waveguides. Several different laser systems can be used to form waveguide structures by ablation. Establishment of waveguide layout design rules from experimental measurements and modelling enables successful first time layout of complex interconnection patterns. Research limitations/implications - The complexity and length of the waveguides in a complex backplane interconnect, beyond that achieved in this paper, is limited by the bend loss and by the propagation loss partially caused by waveguide sidewall roughness, so further research in these areas would be beneficial to give a wider range of applicability. Originality/value - The paper gives an overview of advances in polymer formulation, fabrication methods and CAD tools, for manufacturing of complex hybrid-integrated OPCBs. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Zakariyah S.S.,Loughborough University | Zakariyah S.S.,Advanced Technovation Ltd | Conway P.P.,Loughborough University | Hutt D.A.,Loughborough University | And 2 more authors.
Circuit World | Year: 2012

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the need, and a potential solution, for in-plane routing of optical signals for optical-enabled circuit boards. Design/methodology/approach - Multimode waveguides and integrated 45 in-plane mirror structures were made in a low loss acrylate-based photopolymer using excimer laser ablation. The fabrication of multimode waveguides and mirrors was carried out in a single laser system which minimised alignment issues. Findings - It was established that in-plane mirror fabrication using laser ablation can be achieved and can potentially be used to define mirrors in waveguides made by other methods such as photolithography. Research limitations/implications - While the concept (integrated in-plane mirror) was demonstrated, the viability of its deployment will depend on the results of optical loss measurements for which further research is required. Originality/value - The paper gives an overview of the design concept and fabrication steps for an in-plane embedded mirror. Copyright © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

Ur Rehman H.,Exxelis Ltd | Ahmad S.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore | Ajaz H.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore | Hanif M.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Structural Chemistry | Year: 2011

A polymeric silver(I) complex, bis(N-methylthiourea)silver(I) nitrate, {[Ag(Metu)2]NO3}n is prepared and its crystal structure is determined. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group. In the structure, distorted AgS4 tetrahedra are linked through the sulfur atoms of the Metu ligand to form isolated infinite chains of the type [Ag(SR)2] nn+. The cationic chains are separated from each other by nitrate ions that do not coordinate to the metal ion. The chains are bridged via N-H...O hydrogen bonds involving the nitrate ions. The complex exhibits an Ag-Ag separation of ∼3.21 Å indicating the existence of significant argentophilic interactions. An upfield shift in the >C=S resonance of Metu in 13C NMR and downfield shift in the N-H resonance in 1H NMR are consistent with sulfur coordination to silver(I). © 2011 by H. Ur Rehman, S. Ahmad, H. Ajaz, M. Hanif, M. Altaf, and H. Stoeckli-Evans.

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