Exxaro Resources Ltd.
Exxaro Resources Ltd.
News Article | May 24, 2017
JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) – It is an organisation that is more relevant today than it has ever been in its 128-year history. Its role is so much more than mining and it is operating in a changing environment. With that in mind, the Chamber of Mines of South Africa is rethinking its identity and name, outgoing Chamber of Mines president Mike Teke said on Wednesday as he handed the mining industry’s leadership baton over to Mxolisi Mgojo, 57, the CEO of the R40-billion, 6 000-employee, black-controlled mining company Exxaro Resources. Steve Phiri, CEO of Royal Bafokeng Platinum, was elected vice president and both Andile Sangqu, the executive head of Anglo American South Africa, and Neal Froneman, the CEO of Sibanye, were re-elected as vice presidents, with Froneman divulging, in response to Mining Weekly Online, that much work has been done to incorporate the Zambezi Protocol into the chamber’s strategy. The Zambezi protocol is a blueprint developed by the Brenthurst Foundation for solving the current crisis in African mining. “We have a good strategy and we’re going to continue to build on it,” Mgojo said. “The change to the chamber’s name and the rebranding is to establish a new beginning,” said Froneman, who expected the outputs of considerable behind-the-scenes efforts would become visible as the organisation moved forward. Chamber CEO Roger Baxter said that historical facts needed to be engaged as an industry, which was what the chamber had been doing. Teke told the Investing in African Mining Indaba, in Cape Town, earlier this year, that there was no denying that mining, besides being the foundation of the South African economy, had also been one of the foundation stones of South Africa’s abhorrent apartheid past and that the industry had done itself a disservice by not fully acknowledging that fact. The failure of the mining industry to admit its past continued to burden the industry and its reputation in the eyes of many of its stakeholders, Teke said in an unprecedented mea culpa speech covered by Creamer Media’s Mining Weekly Online. “One of my greatest wishes is that the industry resolves to deal with this. And soon,” said KwaThema-born Teke, who declared a more direct link between profit and employee earnings as being "highly desirable" and expressed a determination to do more with the R2-billion yearly corporate social investment spend to better relationships with near-mine communities. As the Zambezi Protocol spells out, solving the current crisis in the African mining sector requires moving from the current series of tactical actions to a more cohesive, inclusive and strategic approach. The intent must be to exit the current backward-looking, destructive downward spiral in which mining is currently locked and shift to a positive, constructive cycle that offers a ‘win-win-win’ deal for all. In a parallel move, the mission of the African Mining Vision is to work with African States and their national and regional organisations to promote the transformative role of mineral resources in the development of the continent, with its activities of the last quarter including a review of its mineral information strategy plus capacity building on contract negotiation. At the chamber’s 127th annual general meeting Baxter disclosed that members had agreed to expand the office bearer team by an extra vice president to underpin key challenges that need addressing. KwaZulu-Natal-born and US-educated Mxolisi Donald Mbuyisa Mgojo, who was unanimously elected by the entire chamber council, has widespread mining experience in coal, mineral sands, zinc and iron-ore – and heads a company that is also active in the generation of renewable energy. He reiterated the viewpoint that South Africa’s current economic growth remains inadequate to drive the changes required for the country’s socioeconomic challenges. Exxaro, which reported 185%-higher headline earnings of R4 621-million for the 12 months to December 31, is piloting digital mine organisation on an Internet of Things platform and Mgojo’s viewpoint is that innovative advancement is no longer a nice-to-have but an imperative for mining industry survival into the future. He also believes that the vast tracts of land and abundant water supply held by mining companies around their mines should be used for community development through agriculture. He has expressed the view to Mining Weekly Online that a mine is part of an ecosystem that should be serving and he believes that the mining industry should be proactive in designing mandatory social and labour plans and enterprise development around achieving energy, food and water security.
News Article | May 24, 2017
The South African Chamber of Mines has voted in Exxaro Resources (SJ:EXX) CEO Mxolisi Mgojo as president, replacing Mike Teke. The South African Chamber of Mines has been a loud voice for the industry while the turmoil-hit government updates the country’s mining code. New president Mgojo will be joined by a new vice president in Royal Bafokeng Platinum (SJ:RBP) CEO, Steve Phiri. Anglo American (LN:AAL) South Africa boss Andile Sangqu and Sibanye Gold (SJ:SGL) boss Neal Froneman were re-elected as vice presidents. The chamber added a new VP role at the annual general meeting. Chamber CEO Roger Baxter said Teke had been an admirable champion for South African miners.
News Article | May 29, 2017
JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) – The 128-year-old Chamber of Mines of South Africa provided an important indicator of its intended new direction when it revealed that the Zambezi Protocol would be its guiding light as it embarked on its identity and name-change programme. Under unanimously elected new president Mxolisi Mgojo, the chamber is accelerating its move towards radical reform and taking steps to make good on the devastating havoc that apartheid wreaked on the industry. (Also watch attached Creamer Media video). This follows outgoing president Mike Teke revealing the chamber’s new direction and re-elected vice president Neal Froneman revealing that the Zambezi Protocol – a mining blueprint formulated by Africans for Africans – has already been incorporated in detail into the chamber’s strategy. “It’s a strategy that is very positive. It’s about really redefining this industry in a way that continues to ensure that mining again becomes a bedrock contributor to the economy. We see that as our real mandate,” Mgojo told a media conference in which Mining Weekly Online took part. “As the new president has outlined, we have a good strategy, and it is what the chamber is going to continue to build off,” Froneman reiterated. The change to the chamber’s name and identity is designed to establish a new beginning. “The outputs will become visible as we go forward. It’s not appropriate to give you the specifics now,” Froneman said, adding that much work was taking place behind the scenes. “From the chamber’s side, some of the ideas of this ongoing process will emerge over time. We can’t say too much at this stage, but it gives you the flavour of many of the different issues we’ve been looking at,” chamber CEO Roger Baxter said in response to Mining Weekly Online. Teke set the scene at this year’s Mining Indaba in Cape Town in February when he chided the industry for not fully acknowledging mining’s foundation-stone role in South Africa’s apartheid history. “One just needs to understand that history is history,” said Baxter. “We weren’t necessarily the people that were there at the time that the history was created but the facts have happened and we’ve got to be able to engage them properly as the industry, which is what we’ve been doing.” Mgojo has been able to hit the ground running in righting some of the wrongs of the past. Already entirely phased out is single-gender hostels and considerable work has been done in the fields of gender equity, housing, skills development and the payment of pensions to former mineworkers. “Those are all part of a process of acknowledging that injustices took place in the past and that the industry is contributing to a positive future as the industry, which is part of the process around the chamber’s own brand health and about how we represent the industry,” Baxter added. Re-elected vice president Andile Sangqu said transformation should not be about target chasing but rather about creating an end-state vision of what a transformed mining industry should look like. “We should have an end game in mind so that we’re all working collectively towards something that’s clear, well-articulated and taking us towards a defined destination. “It’s really a conversation that we’ll obviously need to have with all of the affected stakeholders to drive that sense of mission and journey,” Sangqu added. The Zambezi Protocol – developed under the auspices of the Brenthurst Foundation – lays down that solving the current crisis in the African mining sector requires moving from the current series of tactical actions to a more cohesive, inclusive and strategic approach. It guides that the intent must be to exit the current backward-looking, destructive, downward spiral in which mining is currently locked and shift to a positive, constructive cycle that offers a stakeholder win-win. It highlights that the losers of mining’s current dilemma are not only current workers and future workers, but also governments, populations and mining companies. The difficult issues that have underwritten mining’s current impasse will need to be addressed, as the Zambezi Protocol states, and unjust historical legacies need to be put right. As the industry heads in a new direction, it will also have to answer questions on the amount of profit that is reasonable, its responsibility to employees and how it can help communities. Also in the protocol’s outline is that agreement be reached on what a successful mining industry looks like, without neglecting to recognise that mining is inherently risky and long-term. All four of the chamber’s office bearers – including third vice president Steve Phiri who was returning from Platinum Week in London when last week’s annual general meeting took place – are outspoken, which adds, in Baxter’s words, to “the gravitas to the office-bearer suite”. The new chamber will be going all out to increase membership beyond the current 75 entities so that the workload can be shared. Chamber membership is normally associated with large mining companies, but it also has member associations involving many smaller entities. Among these are the aggregate and sand producers association, Aspasa, which has more than 600 quarries in its fold that are both large and small, as is the case with the South African Clay Brick Association, another chamber member. In addition, smaller emerging miners have taken up membership through the chamber’s emerging miners’ desk, headed by senior executive: public affairs and transformation Tebello Chabana. A team of retired CEOs and former presidents, including Dr Con Fauconnier, mentor the emerging mining companies and help them to become fully fledged operators. “So, we’ve been doing our bit to broaden our base,” Baxter pointed out. In the conversations that Mining Weekly Online has had with Mgojo, he has expressed an interest in involving near-mining communities to become involved agriculturally in the vast tracts of land that surround mines and to benefit from the abundance of water at their disposal. It may thus mean that the exit of the old chamber name is to be accompanied by the entry of a more holistic natural resources identity looking beyond energy minerals in the form of coal, coal gas and uranium only for new membership. Mgojo heads the 6 000-employee, R40-billion, black-controlled Exxaro Resources that already has a renewable energy generating business. Gas is another energy source that chamber mining members have turned a blind eye to in the past. Chamber members wore blinkers when they drilled through gas resources in their search for gold in the Free State. Now the State-owned Industrial Development Corporation is helping to remedy that omission by providing R218-million in loan finance to support the further development of a natural gas resource in the Free State, through the creation of a 107-km pipeline network and associated gas processing facilities. “It’s certainly not a view from the chamber side that we’ve lost any effectiveness. In fact, I think the chamber is more united and more capable and more able to engage government,” Baxter told journalists. For long, the chamber engaged the government through direct conversation but going forward it could well do so also through the courts. “You will see from the last two years that we’re not shy to engage government in court processes because courts are there as part of a constitutional democracy, to protect our rights and to enforce our rights; and government has the same route. “When you deal with organisations like the National Mining Association of the United States, if they have got four or five litigation issues at any one time, the courts are there to play a particular purpose. “It is part of a legitimate process within a constitutional democracy to make sure that you get outcomes that are in the national interest,” he added. Because of mining’s many economic linkages, the new mantle that it dons will be crucial in determining the extent to which it benefits the South African economy.
Naude G.,Exxaro Resources Ltd. |
Hoffman J.,South African Nuclear Energy Corporation |
Theron S.J.,Exxaro Resources Ltd. |
Coetzer G.,Exxaro Resources Ltd.
Minerals Engineering | Year: 2013
High quality char, produced during the initial coal gasification process, is commonly utilised as a reductant during the smelting of chromite ores. The rate of the gasification reaction and gasification performance will depend on the relevant coal properties. These properties include organic and inorganic composition, coal porosity and pore size distribution, permeability, swelling index and intrinsic reactivity. Quantitative evaluation of these factors affecting the behaviour of coal during pyrolysis and the subsequent influence of those properties on the reactivity of the char product is of paramount significance to further our understanding of the natural differences inherent in coal. X-ray computed tomography allowed three-dimensional characterisation of pores, organic and inorganic constituents. Pyrolysis of coal resulted in increased pore volumes, and by extension, increased porosity. However, the percentage increase in porosity differs from sample to sample, which may be related to the volatile matter content of the coal. The widening and cleanup of pores during gasification result in a decrease in organic content. The organic phases will influence the behaviour of mineral matter during pyrolysis, since the former will fluidise and become devolatilised, while the mineral matter will not become fluid or volatilise, therefore the minerals will migrate and settle and, ultimately, form agglomerates. The lack of significant swelling in the TB1 sample may suggest that higher levels of inertinite were present in the sample, while increased amounts of swelling in the TB2 and TB3 samples may result from increased levels of vitrinite, with the TB3 sample possibly containing the largest percentage vitrinite. The proportion of porous chars will increase with increasing vitrinite content in the parent coal, and therefore, since the TB3 char is highly porous, the possibility that the TB3 sample contains a high proportion of vitrinite becomes highly probable. However, these results need to be verified by quantifying the maceral phases through petrographic analysis. Nevertheless, inherent differences in the nature of coal will result in differences in behaviour when subjected to gasification. Although X-ray computed tomography could be used to successfully identify and quantify various properties within a sample, some limitations still remain. Further work utilising complementary techniques is required to positively identify the remaining unknown phases as well as quantify the organic components. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theron J.A.,Exxaro Resources Ltd |
Le Roux E.,Exxaro Resources Ltd
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy | Year: 2015
This paper provides guidelines on performing mass and energy balance modelling involving coal and coal derivatives. Usually, the inputs to a pyrometallurgical process would be specified in terms of elements and compounds. Reliable thermochemical data is more widely available for species involving uniquely defined, relatively smaller molecules. However, in the case of coal, the molecules are extremely large and not uniquely defined. Consequently, modelling processes involving coal and its derivatives involve several potential pitfalls. These are outlined in the present paper. It was found that coal proximate analysis should not be regarded as absolute; it could vary with several parameters, including heating rate. For modelling, the use of ultimate analyses should be considered a preferable option to proximate analyses, where 'fixed carbon' and 'volatiles' are not defined in terms of chemical composition. Significant errors could be incurred if the larger molecules are neglected during calculation of the calorific value (CV) of coal gas (the gas liberated when coal is heated in the absence of oxygen). For elemental analysis determination, the oxygen content (which is calculated by balance) should be checked to ensure it is within the expected range. For representation of sulphur in coal, one should avoid doublecounting due to SO3 in the ash analysis. Potentially, oxygen in coal could be represented as O2, H2O, CO, or CO2. However, use of some of these species without considering the experimentally determined gross CV leads to significant errors in the energy balance. If coal enthalpy is calculated from elemental analyses without correction, representation of coal oxygen as H2O(1) gives reasonable accuracy. Coal volatiles could be represented by a complex mixture of compounds, even using different oxygen-containing species than these four, provided the enthalpy is corrected. It is recommended that an 'enthalpy correction value' be incorporated in energy balances involving combustion, devolatilization, or conversion of coal and coal derivatives, e.g. coke, char, or tar. That would imply that proximate analysis, elemental analysis, as well as the gross CV would be required for all solid or liquid coal-derived substances being modelled. No other correction due to carbon being present in a form other than graphite should be used, as that would imply double-counting some effects. © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2015.
Richards J.M.,Exxaro Resources Ltd. |
Naude G.,Exxaro Resources Ltd. |
Theron S.J.,Exxaro Resources Ltd. |
McCullum M.,Exxaro Resources Ltd.
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy | Year: 2013
For most of the 20th century optical petrography has been the primary petrological and mineralogical tool used to characterize coal. The development of quantitative SEM-based techniques, e.g. QEMSCAN®, for coal began only about a decade ago. The application of these techniques for coal lagged behind other commodities, but they are currently being developed with the aim to provide 'one complete analysis' for coal. Quantitative SEM-based techniques are supplemented by quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD). Recent indications are that these more modern techniques cannot replace the 'standard' petrographic and chemical evaluations, but rather complement them where and when required. The great advantage of quantitative SEM-based techniques is that they are very rapid, with the result that large volumes of samples can be processed on a routine basis. This is ideal for coal type identification, since the results can be used in the creation of 'intelligent' composites. This can lead to the more speedy evaluation of coal deposits by reducing the number of samples on which detailed metallurgical and characterization test work is required, without an increase in the overall statistical error of the resource model. Coal petrography, however, remains important for the prediction of the coking characteristics of certain coals and coal products. As a consequence it is therefore important that any coal laboratory be able to produce data with confidence. This requires strict quality control and assurance protocols that adhere to international standards.© The southern african institute of mining and metallurgy, 2013.
Van Der Merwe G.W.,Exxaro Resources Ltd.
AACE International Transactions | Year: 2012
Quite often project planning is developed during the execution phase for the next part of the project activities which deprives the team of informing the up-stream activities of the information that would be required by the down-stream activities. This behavior results in information not collected during execution to inform next step activities. To this end, the formulation and definition of proper project execution plans throughout the project lifecycle are vital to ensure that all requirements throughout the lifecycle are collected, considered and accommodated in the program, processes, procedures and the schedules. Regardless of the implementation model, the strategic planning forms a critical part of successful project execution. For purpose of this discussion, a process plant project is taken as an example.
Ledgerwood J.,Exxaro Ltd Resources |
Van Zyl W.,Exxaro Ltd Resources |
Van Der Westhuyzen P.V.A.,Exxaro Ltd Resources
8th International Heavy Minerals Conference 2011 | Year: 2011
Namakwa Sands is a mineral processing company based on the West Coast of South Africa and is solely owned by Exxaro Resources Limited. Mineral ore is mined and processed, concentrated and both chemical and mechanically upgraded before being sent for electrostatic and magnetic separation units. The final high value mineral products report as Zircon, Rutile and Ilmenite. The recovery of non-magnetic material is largely dependent upon a number of factors, including but not limited to dew point, ambient temperature, feed rate, mineral size distribution, specific gravity and mineral content in head feed. One important limiting factor to recovery in typical dry mill operations is the particle size distribution of the feed. Variance in the particle size has catastrophic consequences for recovery. This is the reason for this study. Until recently large variances in nonmagnetic production were viewed to be a function of machine operation. This view was later rejected with the feed size distribution determined as the major driver of low recoveries, for Namakwa Sands orebody 50 per cent variance in particle size distribution can be noticed within one day. This is because of the successive mining blending techniques employed. The predicament is that the two modes were so closely placed together that recovery of a single mode is almost impossible without the consequence of greatly reducing recovery. The second mode was found at 125 μm while the first was at 90 μm. Interestingly, for the mentioned feed type a cumulative size distribution of a unimodal feed type is almost exactly the same as for a bimodal size distribution. Thus a plot of cumulative size distribution will show no difference due to the modes being so close together. This is the reason why this phenomenon was not noticed before. The study also found that, using an high tension roll (HTR) or rare earth roll, a fine stream with a single mode at 90 μm versus a coarse stream with a single mode at 150 μm would yield completely different results interms of yields. Larger conductive particles are thrown from the roll while small particles loose charge faster (entrainment). Results in terms of the bimodal size distribution show that even though 25 per cent of the feed type is greater than 150 μm the yields followed a similar pattern to that of the coarse particles rather than that of the majority (75 per cent) fine particles. This confirms what was published by M Ziemski and P N Holtham in 2005 on charge decay rates; they mentioned that particle bed effects played a major role in recovery.