Pingitore A.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology |
Pingitore A.,Extreme Center |
Garbella E.,Institute of Life science |
Garbella E.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
And 24 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Early subclinical increase in pulmonary water content in athletes performing sustained heavy exercise at sea level: ultrasound lung comet-tail evidence. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301: H2161-H2167, 2011. First published August 26, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00388.2011.-Whether prolonged strenuous exercise performed by athletes at sea level can produce interstitial pulmonary edema is under debate. Chest sonography allows to estimate extravascular lung water, creating ultrasound lung comet-tail (ULC) artifacts. The aim of the study was to determine whether pulmonary water content increases in Ironmen (n _ 31) during race at sea level and its correlation with cardiopulmonary function and systemic proinflammatory and cardiac biohumoral markers. A multiple factor analysis approach was used to determine the relations between systemic modifications and ULCs by assessing correlations among variables and groups of variables showing significant pre-post changes. All athletes were asymptomatic for cough and dyspnea at rest and after the race. Immediately after the race, a score of more than five comet tail artifacts, the threshold for a significant detection, was present in 23 athletes (74%; 16.3 _ 11.2; P _ 0.01 ULC after the race vs. rest) but decreased 12 h after the end of the race (13 athletes; 42%; 6.3 _ 8.0; P _ 0.01 vs. soon after the race). Multiple factor analysis showed significant correlations between ULCs and cardiac-related variables and NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Healthy athletes developed subclinical increase in pulmonary water content immediately after an Ironman race at sea level, as shown by the increased number of ULCs related to cardiac changes occurring during exercise. Hemodynamic changes are one of several potential factors contributing to the mechanisms of ULCs.© 2011 the American Physiological Society. Source