ExSAR Corporation

Monmouth Junction, NJ, United States

ExSAR Corporation

Monmouth Junction, NJ, United States

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A new strategy to analyze amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) data is proposed, utilizing a wider time window and isotope envelope analysis of each peptide. While most current scientific reports present HDX-MS data as a set of time-dependent deuteration levels of peptides, the ideal HDX-MS data presentation is a complete set of backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates. The ideal data set can provide single amide resolution, coverage of all exchange events, and the open/close ratio of each amide hydrogen in EX2 mechanism. Toward this goal, a typical HDX-MS protocol was modified in two aspects: measurement of a wider time window in HDX-MS experiments and deconvolution of isotope envelope of each peptide. Measurement of a wider time window enabled the observation of deuterium incorporation of most backbone amide hydrogens. Analysis of the isotope envelope instead of centroid value provides the deuterium distribution instead of the sum of deuteration levels in each peptide. A one-step, global-fitting algorithm optimized exchange rate and deuterium retention during the analysis of each amide hydrogen by fitting the deuterated isotope envelopes at all time points of all peptides in a region. Application of this strategy to cytochrome c yielded 97 out of 100 amide hydrogen exchange rates. A set of exchange rates determined by this approach is more appropriate for a patent or regulatory filing of a biopharmaceutical than a set of peptide deuteration levels obtained by a typical protocol. A wider time window of this method also eliminates false negatives in protein-ligand binding site identification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2017, American Society for Mass Spectrometry.


Kong L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kong L.,University of Oxford | Huang C.-C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Coales S.J.,ExSAR Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2010

The binding reaction of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein to the CD4 receptor involves exceptional changes in enthalpy and entropy. Crystal structures of gp120 in unliganded and various ligand-bound states, meanwhile, reveal an inner domain able to fold into diverse conformations, a structurally invariant outer domain, and, in the CD4-bound state, a bridging sheet minidomain. These studies, however, provide only hints as to the flexibility of each state. Here we use amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry to provide quantifications of local conformational stability for HIV-1 gp120 in unliganded and CD4-bound states. On average, unliganded core gp120 displayed >10,000-fold slower exchange of backbone-amide hydrogens than a theoretically unstructured protein of the same composition, with binding by CD4 reducing the rate of gp120 amide exchange a further 10-fold. For the structurally constant CD4, alterations in exchange correlated well with alterations in binding surface (P value = 0.0004). For the structurally variable gp120, however, reductions in flexibility extended outside the binding surface, and regions of expected high structural diversity (inner domain/bridging sheet) displayed roughly 20-fold more rapid exchange in the unliganded state than regions of low diversity (outer domain). Thus, despite an extraordinary reduction in entropy, neither unliganded gp120 nor free CD4 was substantially unstructured, suggesting that most of the diverse conformations that make up the gp120 unliganded state are reasonably ordered. The results provide a framework for understanding how local conformational stability influences entropic change, conformational diversity, and structural rearrangements in the gp120-CD4 binding reaction. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Tang L.,ExSAR Corporation | Tang L.,Imclone Systems | Coales S.J.,ExSAR Corporation | Morrow J.A.,Sierra Analytics Inc. | And 2 more authors.
ChemBioChem | Year: 2012

An asparagine-to-serine substitution at residue 370 (N370S) in glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is the most prevalent mutation leading to Gaucher's disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Two types of hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiment coupled with proteolysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) were used to investigate the dynamic properties and unfolding stability of wt, R495H, and N370S GCases in the presence and absence of ligands. R495H GCase is used for enzyme replacement therapy and is considered to be a wt surrogate, whereas N370S is the most prevalent mutation leading to Gaucher's disease. Time-course HDX experiments of the GCases were performed under near-physiological conditions to detect the protein's local unfolding motions at a submolecular level. In guanidine-titration experiments, HDX reactions were performed with various concentrations of a chemical denaturant to provide the global stability of the proteins. The two types of experiment showed that all three purified GCases, wt, R495H, and N370S, have virtually identical local unfolding motions and global stabilities in solution. Combined with previous X-ray crystallographic studies, which showed indistinguishable backbone conformations for N370S and R495H GCase mutants and very similar melting temperatures for the wt, R495H, and N370S mutants, all three GCases are likely to have virtually identical structural and dynamic properties in solution. The guanidine-titration experiments revealed that the pharmacological chaperone, isofagomine (IFG), interacts more weakly with the N370S mutant than with the R495H GCase; this is consistent with the higher IC50 value of IFG against N370S than against R495H. The time-course experiments showed that IFG restricts the local unfolding motions of N370S in the same way as those of R495H when the ligand saturates the proteins. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


O'Shannessy D.J.,Morphotek Inc. | Somers E.B.,Morphotek Inc. | Albone E.,Morphotek Inc. | Cheng X.,Morphotek Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2011

Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a cell surface protein whose aberrant expression in malignant cells has resulted in its pursuit as a therapeutic target and marker for diagnosis of cancer. The development of immune-based reagents that can reproducibly detect FRA from patient tissue processed by varying methods has been difficult due to the complex post-translational structure of the protein whereby most reagents developed to date are highly structure-sensitive and have resulted in equivocal expression results across independent studies. The aim of the present study was to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using modified full length FRA protein as immunogen in order to develop a panel of mAbs to various, non-overlapping epitopes that may serve as diagnostic reagents able to robustly detect FRA-positive disease. Here we report the development of a panel of FRA-specific mAbs that are able to specifically detect FRA using an array of diagnostic platforms and methods. In addition, the methods used to develop these mAbs and their diverse binding properties provide additional information on the three dimensional structure of FRA in its native cell surface configuration. © O'Shannessy et al.


Lewis H.A.,SGX Pharmaceuticals | Wang C.,Columbia University | Zhao X.,SGX Pharmaceuticals | Hamuro Y.,ExSAR Corporation | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The ΔF508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and ΔF508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because ΔF508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and ΔF508 constructs, and the ΔF508 structure contained additional mutations that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide 1H/2H exchange rates in matched F508 and ΔF508 constructs reveal that ΔF508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the ΔF508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-ΔF508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all ΔF508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation ΔF508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that increased exposure of the 509-511 loop and increased dynamics in its vicinity could promote aggregation in vitro and aberrant intermolecular interactions that impede trafficking in vivo. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu T.,University of California at San Diego | Pantazatos D.,Brown University | Li S.,University of California at San Diego | Hamuro Y.,ExSAR Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Peptide amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) data are often used to qualitatively support models for protein structure. We have developed and validated a method (DXCOREX) by which exchange data can be used to quantitatively assess the accuracy of three-dimensional (3-D) models of protein structure. The method utilizes the COREX algorithm to predict a protein's amide hydrogen exchange rates by reference to a hypothesized structure, and these values are used to generate a virtual data set (deuteron incorporation per peptide) that can be quantitatively compared with the deuteration level of the peptide probes measured by hydrogen exchange experimentation. The accuracy of DXCOREX was established in studies performed with 13 proteins for which both high-resolution structures and experimental data were available. The DXCOREX-calculated and experimental data for each protein was highly correlated. We then employed correlation analysis of DXCOREX-calculated versus DXMS experimental data to assess the accuracy of a recently proposed structural model for the catalytic domain of a Ca2+-independent phospholipase A 2. The model's calculated exchange behavior was highly correlated with the experimental exchange results available for the protein, supporting the accuracy of the proposed model. This method of analysis will substantially increase the precision with which experimental hydrogen exchange data can help decipher challenging questions regarding protein structure and dynamics. © 2011 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.


Coales S.J.,ExSAR Corporation
Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM | Year: 2010

Backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates can be used to describe the dynamic properties of a protein. Amide hydrogen exchange rates in a native protein may vary from milliseconds (ms) to several years. Ideally, the rates of all amide hydrogens of the analyte protein can be determined individually. To achieve this goal, monitoring of a wider time window is critical, in addition to high sequence coverage and high sequence resolution. Significant improvements have been made to hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry methods in the past decade for better sequence coverage and higher sequence resolution. On the other hand, little effort has been made to expand the experimental time window to accurately determine exchange rates of amide hydrogens. Many fast exchanging amide hydrogens are completely exchanged before completion of a typical short exchange time point (10-30s) and many slow exchanging amide hydrogens do not start exchanging before a typical long exchanging time point (1-3h). Here various experimental conditions, as well as a quenched-flow apparatus, are utilized to monitor cytochrome c amide hydrogen exchange behaviors over more than eight orders of magnitude (0.0044-1000000s), when converted into the standard exchange condition (pH 7 and 23°C).


PubMed | ExSAR Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology | Year: 2012

An asparagine-to-serine substitution at residue 370 (N370S) in glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is the most prevalent mutation leading to Gauchers disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Two types of hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiment coupled with proteolysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) were used to investigate the dynamic properties and unfolding stability of wt, R495H, and N370S GCases in the presence and absence of ligands. R495H GCase is used for enzyme replacement therapy and is considered to be a wt surrogate, whereas N370S is the most prevalent mutation leading to Gauchers disease. Time-course HDX experiments of the GCases were performed under near-physiological conditions to detect the proteins local unfolding motions at a submolecular level. In guanidine-titration experiments, HDX reactions were performed with various concentrations of a chemical denaturant to provide the global stability of the proteins. The two types of experiment showed that all three purified GCases, wt, R495H, and N370S, have virtually identical local unfolding motions and global stabilities in solution. Combined with previous X-ray crystallographic studies, which showed indistinguishable backbone conformations for N370S and R495H GCase mutants and very similar melting temperatures for the wt, R495H, and N370S mutants, all three GCases are likely to have virtually identical structural and dynamic properties in solution. The guanidine-titration experiments revealed that the pharmacological chaperone, isofagomine (IFG), interacts more weakly with the N370S mutant than with the R495H GCase; this is consistent with the higher IC(50) value of IFG against N370S than against R495H. The time-course experiments showed that IFG restricts the local unfolding motions of N370S in the same way as those of R495H when the ligand saturates the proteins.


PubMed | ExSAR Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of molecular recognition : JMR | Year: 2012

Understanding antigen-antibody interactions at the sub-molecular level is of particular interest for scientific, regulatory, and intellectual property reasons, especially with increasing demand for monoclonal antibody therapeutic agents. Although various techniques are available for the determination of an epitope, there is no widely applicable, high-resolution, and reliable method available. Here, a combination approach using amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with proteolysis and mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and computational docking was applied to investigate antigen-antibody interactions. HDX-MS is a widely applicable, medium-resolution, medium-throughput technology that can be applied to epitope identification. First, the epitopes of cytochrome c-E8, IL-13-CNTO607, and IL-17A-CAT-2200 interactions identified using the HDX-MS method were compared with those identified by X-ray co-crystal structures. The identified epitopes are in good agreement with those identified using high-resolution X-ray crystallography. Second, the HDX-MS data were used as constraints for computational docking. More specifically, the non-epitope residues of an antigen identified using HDX-MS were designated as binding ineligible during computational docking. This approach, termed HDX-DOCK, gave more tightly clustered docking poses than stand-alone docking for all antigen-antibody interactions examined and improved docking results significantly for the cytochrome c-E8 interaction.


PubMed | ExSAR Corporation
Type: Comment | Journal: Structure (London, England : 1993) | Year: 2010

The dynamic properties of VDR LBD and full-length VDR/RXR heterodimer in the presence and absence of ligands were investigated by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (Zhang etal., 2010a). The results beautifully complement X-ray crystal structure data.

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