Expression Analysis Inc.

Durham, NC, United States

Expression Analysis Inc.

Durham, NC, United States
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Mavrakis K.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Wolfe A.L.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Oricchio E.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Palomero T.,Columbia University | And 13 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel cancer genes. In particular, the miR-17-92 cluster, containing six individual miRNAs, is highly expressed in haematopoietic cancers and promotes lymphomagenesis in vivo. Clinical use of these findings hinges on isolating the oncogenic activity within the 17-92 cluster and defining its relevant target genes. Here we show that miR-19 is sufficient to promote leukaemogenesis in Notch1-induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) in vivo. In concord with the pathogenic importance of this interaction in T-ALL, we report a novel translocation that targets the 17-92 cluster and coincides with a second rearrangement that activates Notch1. To identify the miR-19 targets responsible for its oncogenic action, we conducted a large-scale short hairpin RNA screen for genes whose knockdown can phenocopy miR-19. Strikingly, the results of this screen were enriched for miR-19 target genes, and include Bim (Bcl2L11), AMP-activated kinase (Prkaa1) and the phosphatases Pten and PP2A (Ppp2r5e). Hence, an unbiased, functional genomics approach reveals a coordinate clampdown on several regulators of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase-related survival signals by the leukaemogenic miR-19. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Parry R.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Jones W.,Expression Analysis Inc. | Stokes T.H.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Phan J.H.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2010

In the clinical application of genomic data analysis and modeling, a number of factors contribute to the performance of disease classification and clinical outcome prediction. This study focuses on the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) modeling strategy and its clinical use. Although KNN is simple and clinically appealing, large performance variations were found among experienced data analysis teams in the MicroArray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) project. For clinical end points and controls from breast cancer, neuroblastoma and multiple myeloma, we systematically generated 463 320 KNN models by varying feature ranking method, number of features, distance metric, number of neighbors, vote weighting and decision threshold. We identified factors that contribute to the MAQC-II project performance variation, and validated a KNN data analysis protocol using a newly generated clinical data set with 478 neuroblastoma patients. We interpreted the biological and practical significance of the derived KNN models, and compared their performance with existing clinical factors. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Yu Y.,Fudan University | Fuscoe J.C.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Zhao C.,Fudan University | Guo C.,Beckman Research Institute | And 29 more authors.
Nature communications | Year: 2014

The rat has been used extensively as a model for evaluating chemical toxicities and for understanding drug mechanisms. However, its transcriptome across multiple organs, or developmental stages, has not yet been reported. Here we show, as part of the SEQC consortium efforts, a comprehensive rat transcriptomic BodyMap created by performing RNA-Seq on 320 samples from 11 organs of both sexes of juvenile, adolescent, adult and aged Fischer 344 rats. We catalogue the expression profiles of 40,064 genes, 65,167 transcripts, 31,909 alternatively spliced transcript variants and 2,367 non-coding genes/non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) annotated in AceView. We find that organ-enriched, differentially expressed genes reflect the known organ-specific biological activities. A large number of transcripts show organ-specific, age-dependent or sex-specific differential expression patterns. We create a web-based, open-access rat BodyMap database of expression profiles with crosslinks to other widely used databases, anticipating that it will serve as a primary resource for biomedical research using the rat model.

PubMed | Gilead Sciences, Boston University and Expression Analysis Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2016

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes acute, and occasionally fatal, lower respiratory illness in young infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Therapeutic interventions able to cut short viral replication and quickly return the airways to normal function are needed. An understanding of antiviral activities and their effects on host defense mechanisms is important for the design of safe and effective therapy. We targeted functionally and temporally distinct steps within the viral life cycle using small-molecule RSV inhibitors and studied their antiviral activities and their effects on innate interferon responses of airway epithelial cells in vitro. Antivirals acting upstream of RSV polymerase activity (i.e., compounds targeting the fusion protein or the nucleoprotein) reduced viral load immediately postinfection and partially attenuated interferon responses. In contrast, antivirals directed to the RSV polymerase demonstrated activity throughout the viral replication cycle and specifically modulated the RIG-I/mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)/TBK1/IRF3/interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) axis, causing either an upregulation or a downregulation of interferon responses, depending on the mechanism of polymerase inhibition. Notably, polymerase inhibition leading to the accumulation of abortive RNA products correlated with the amplification of interferon-stimulated genes to up to 10 times above normal infection levels. Understanding how antiviral activities and their modulation of innate immunity may affect recovery from RSV infection will help guide the development of safe and effective therapies.RSV circulates seasonally, causing acute lower respiratory disease. Therapeutic interventions with efficacy throughout the viral replication cycle, rapid viral clearance, and prevention of potentially harmful inflammatory responses are desirable. Compounds targeting the RSV polymerase inhibited virus replication late in the viral life cycle and, depending on the functional domain targeted, either attenuated or amplified RIG-I and downstream interferon pathways in infected cells. These data will help guide the development of safe and effective therapies by providing new molecular evidence that the mechanism of inhibition by an antiviral compound can directly impact innate antiviral immune responses in the airway epithelium.

Dahlman K.B.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Parker J.S.,Expression Analysis Inc. | Shamu T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Hieronymus H.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

There is significant need to identify novel prostate cancer drug targets because current hormone therapies eventually fail, leading to a drug-resistant and fatal disease termed castration-resistant prostate cancer. To functionally identify genes that, when silenced, decrease prostate cancer cell proliferation or induce cell death in combination with antiandrogens, we employed an RNA interference-based short hairpin RNA barcode screen in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. We identified and validated four candidate genes (AKT1, PSMC1, STRADA, and TTK) that impaired growth when silenced in androgen receptor positive prostate cancer cells and enhanced the antiproliferative effects of antiandrogens. Inhibition of AKT with a pharmacologic inhibitor also induced apoptosis when combined with antiandrogens, consistent with recent evidence for PI3K and AR pathway crosstalk in prostate cancer cells. Recovery of hairpins targeting a known prostate cancer pathway validates the utility of shRNA library screening in prostate cancer as a broad strategy to identify new candidate drug targets. © 2012 Dahlman et al.

Fannin R.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Russo M.,Carolinas Medical Center Liver Transplant Unit | O'Connell T.M.,North Park University | O'Connell T.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 11 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

The diagnosis and management of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is hindered by the limited utility of traditional clinical chemistries. It has recently been shown that hepatotoxicants can produce compound-specific changes in the peripheral blood (PB) transcriptome in rodents, suggesting that the blood transcriptome might provide new biomarkers of DILI. To investigate in humans, we used DNA microarrays as well as serum metabolomic methods to characterize changes in the transcriptome and metabolome in serial PB samples obtained from six healthy adults treated with a 4-g bolus dose of acetaminophen (APAP) and from three receiving placebo. Treatment did not cause liver injury as assessed by traditional liver chemistries. However, 48 hours after exposure, treated subjects showed marked downregulation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation/mitochondrial function that was not observed in the placebos (P < 1.66E-19). The magnitude of down-regulation was positively correlated with the percent of APAP converted to the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p- benzoquinone-imide (NAPQI) (r = 0.739; P = 0.058). In addition, unbiased analysis of the serum metabolome revealed an increase in serum lactate from 24 to 72 hours postdosing in the treated subjects alone (P < 0.005). Similar PB transcriptome changes were observed in human overdose patients and rats receiving toxic doses. Conclusion: The single 4-g APAP dose produced a transcriptome signature in PB cells characterized by down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation genes accompanied by increased serum lactate. Similar gene expression changes were observed in rats and several patients after consuming hepatotoxic doses of APAP. The timing of the changes and the correlation with NAPQI production are consistent with mechanisms known to underlie APAP hepatoxicity. These studies support the further exploration of the blood transcriptome for biomarkers of DILI. Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Haugen A.C.,National Health Research Institute | Di Prospero N.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Parker J.S.,Expression Analysis Inc. | Fannin R.D.,National Health Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2010

The neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal-recessively inherited ataxia and is caused by a GAA triplet repeat expansion in the first intron of the frataxin gene. In this disease, transcription of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein involved in iron homeostasis, is impaired, resulting in a significant reduction in mRNA and protein levels. Global gene expression analysis was performed in peripheral blood samples from FRDA patients as compared to controls, which suggested altered expression patterns pertaining to genotoxic stress. We then confirmed the presence of genotoxic DNA damage by using a gene-specific quantitative PCR assay and discovered an increase in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in the blood of these patients (p<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, frataxin mRNA levels correlated with age of onset of disease and displayed unique sets of gene alterations involved in immune response, oxidative phosphorylation, and protein synthesis. Many of the key pathways observed by transcription profiling were downregulated, and we believe these data suggest that patients with prolonged frataxin deficiency undergo a systemic survival response to chronic genotoxic stress and consequent DNA damage detectable in blood. In conclusion, our results yield insight into the nature and progression of FRDA, as well as possible therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, the identification of potential biomarkers, including the DNA damage found in peripheral blood, may have predictive value in future clinical trials.

Roll J.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Rivenbark A.G.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Sandhu R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Parker J.S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 5 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2013

A subset of human breast cancer cell lines exhibits aberrant DNA hypermethylation that is characterized by hyperactivity of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes, overexpression of DNMT3b, and concurrent methylation-dependent silencing of numerous epigenetic biomarker genes. The objective of this study was to determine if this aberrant DNA hypermethylation (i) is found in primary breast cancers, (ii) is associated with specific breast cancer molecular subtypes, and (iii) influences patient outcomes. Analysis of epigenetic biomarker genes (CDH1, CEACAM6, CST6, ESR1, GNA11, MUC1, MYB, SCNN1A, and TFF3) identified a gene expression signature characterized by reduced expression levels or loss of expression among a cohort of primary breast cancers. The breast cancers that express this gene expression signature are enriched for triple-negative subtypes - basal-like and claudin-low breast cancers. Methylation analysis of primary breast cancers showed extensive promoter hypermethylation of epigenetic biomarker genes among triple-negative breast cancers, compared to other breast cancer subclasses where promoter hypermethylation events were less frequent. Furthermore, triple-negative breast cancers either did not express or expressed significantly reduced levels of protein corresponding to methylation-sensitive biomarker gene products. Together, these findings suggest strongly that loss of epigenetic biomarker gene expression is frequently associated with gene promoter hypermethylation events. We propose that aberrant DNA hypermethylation is a common characteristic of triple-negative breast cancers and may represent a fundamental biological property of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancers. Kaplan-Meier analysis of relapse-free survival revealed a survival disadvantage for patients with breast cancers that exhibit aberrant DNA hypermethylation. Identification of this distinguishing trait among triple-negative breast cancers forms the basis for development of new rational therapies that target the epigenome in patients with basal-like and claudin-low breast cancers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Connor E.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kahl S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Elsasser T.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Parker J.S.,Expression Analysis Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2010

Growing ruminants under extended dietary restriction exhibit compensatory growth upon ad libitum feeding, which is associated with increased feed efficiency, lower basal energy requirements, and changes in circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones. To identify mechanisms contributing to these physiological changes, 8-month-old steers were fed either ad libitum (control; n∈=∈6) or 60-70% of intake of control animals (feed-restricted; n∈=∈6) for a period of 12 weeks. All steers were fed ad libitum for the remaining 8 weeks of experimentation (realimentation). Liver was biopsied at days -14, +1, and +14 relative to realimentation for gene expression analysis by microarray hybridization. During early realimentation, feed-restricted steers exhibited greater rates of gain and feed efficiency than controls and an increase in expression of genes functioning in cellular metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Gene expression changes during feed restriction were similar to those reported in mice, indicating similar effects of caloric restriction across species. Based on expression of genes involved in cell division and growth and upregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial complex proteins in early realimentation, it was concluded that reduced hepatic size and increased mitochondrial function may contribute to improved feed efficiency observed during compensatory growth. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

PubMed | Expression Analysis Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

3120 Background: Biomarkers are rapidly entering the field of clinical oncology, as gene expression patterns are used to help classify diseases, predict prognosis and suggest treatment options. Much of the promise of this genomic research relies on the comparison of microarray data generated in multiple facilities. However, the comparability of gene expression results is affected by a variety of technical, biological and data analysis factors. In order to quantify and reduce technical variation, we established a year-long testing program to compare microarray data generated in seventeen different laboratories using the Affymetrix platform and identical RNA samples.During each round of testing, participating laboratories received six rat 2302 Affymetrix GeneChips and three replicates of two different RNA sources. The labs prepared targets from the six RNA samples using their own protocols. After hybridization, the image files from each laboratory were collected for data analysis, which included a number of quality, sensitivity, reproducibility and comparability metrics.All of the participating laboratories produced high quality results that repeatedly demonstrated good agreement between the facilities over time. In general, 78% of the differentially-expressed genes identified in one facility were also present on a similar list from another facility. Close examination of the gene lists revealed that most of the unique genes showed concordant expression patterns, suggesting that simple gene list comparisons underestimate comparability.Our results demonstrate that similar biological results can be identified using replicate microarray data sets. These results are encouraging as microarrays are incorporated into clinical trials and transition toward clinical use. They also help define the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility and accuracy of this technology. Such critically important questions must be addressed in preparation for regulatory review. No significant financial relationships to disclose.

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