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Alexander D.D.,Exponent Health science Practice | Morimoto L.M.,Exponent, Inc. | Mink P.J.,Emory University | Cushing C.A.,Exponent Health science Practice
Nutrition Research Reviews | Year: 2010

The relationship between meat consumption and breast cancer has been the focus of several epidemiological investigations, yet there has been no clear scientific consensus as to whether red or processed meat intake increases the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis incorporating data from several recently published prospective studies of red or processed meat intake and breast cancer. In the meta-analysis utilising data from the Pooling Project publication (includes data from eight cohorts) combined with data from nine studies published between 2004 and 2009 and one study published in 1996, the fixed-effect summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) for red meat intake (high v. low) and breast cancer was 102 (95% CI 098, 107; P value for heterogeneity=0001) and the random-effects SRRE was 107 (95% CI 098, 117). The SRRE for each 100g increment of red meat was 104 (95% CI 100, 107), based on a fixed-effects model, and 112 (95% CI 103, 123) based on a random-effects model. No association was observed for each 100g increment of red meat among premenopausal women (SRRE 101; 95% CI 092, 111) but a statistically significant SRRE of 122 (95% CI 104, 144) was observed among postmenopausal women using a random-effects model. However, the association for postmenopausal women was attenuated and non-significant when using a fixed-effects model (SRRE 103; 95% CI 098, 108). The fixed- and random-effect SRRE for high (v. low) processed meat intake and breast cancer were 100 (95% CI 098, 101; P value for heterogeneity=0005) and 108 (95% CI 101, 116), respectively. The fixed- and random-effect SRRE for each 30g increment of processed meat were 103 (95% CI 100, 106) and 106 (95% CI 099, 114), respectively. Overall, weak positive summary associations were observed across all meta-analysis models, with the majority being non-statistically significant. Heterogeneity was evident in most analyses, summary associations were sensitive to the choice of analytical model (fixed v. random effects), and publication bias appeared to have produced slightly elevated summary associations. On the basis of this quantitative assessment, red meat and processed meat intake does not appear to be independently associated with increasing the risk of breast cancer, although further investigations of potential effect modifiers, such as analyses by hormone receptor status, may provide valuable insight to potential patterns of associations. © 2010 The Authors. Source

Mink P.J.,Emory University | Mandel J.S.,Exponent, Inc. | Lundin J.I.,Exponent Health science Practice | Sceurman B.K.,Exponent Health science Practice | Sceurman B.K.,Johns Hopkins University
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. To examine potential health risks in humans, we searched and reviewed the literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with non-cancer health risks in humans. We also reviewed biomonitoring studies of glyphosate to allow for a more comprehensive discussion of issues related to exposure assessment and misclassification. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies on glyphosate and non-cancer outcomes evaluated a variety of endpoints, including non-cancer respiratory conditions, diabetes, myocardial infarction, reproductive and developmental outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, and Parkinson's disease. Our review found no evidence of a consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between any disease and exposure to glyphosate. Most reported associations were weak and not significantly different from 1.0. Because accurate exposure measurement is crucial for valid results, it is recommended that pesticide-specific exposure algorithms be developed and validated. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Alexander D.D.,Exponent Health science Practice | Cabana M.D.,University of California at San Francisco
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: A reduced risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) among healthy infants who received 100% whey protein partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF-W) compared with intact protein cow's milk formula (CMF), has been reported in several studies. To validate these observations and estimate the magnitude of this potential association with greater statistical precision, we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trial and intervention studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 articles representing 12 independent study populations met our inclusion criteria. Results: A statistically significant 44% (summary relative risk estimate [SRRE] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.40-0.77) reduced risk of atopic manifestations, which included AD, was found among infants receiving PHF-W compared with infants receiving CMF. In a subanalysis of 4 studies that reported results specifically for AD and that were considered of superior methodological quality, the incidence of AD was reduced by 55% (SRRE = 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.70). Conclusions: Regardless of study design, infant population, follow-up time, or study location, individual study findings were consistent because a reduced incidence of AD was reported in all of the reviewed studies. Exclusive breast-feeding should be encouraged as the standard for infant nutrition in the first months of life. For infants who are not exclusively breast-fed, feeding with PHF-W instead of CMF reduces the risk of AD in infants, particularly in infants with a family history of allergy. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Alexander D.D.,Exponent Health science Practice | Morimoto L.M.,Exponent, Inc. | Mink P.J.,Exponent Health science Practice | Mink P.J.,Emory University | Lowe K.A.,Exponent Health science Practice
Nutrition Research Reviews | Year: 2010

The objective of the present review was to examine the potential association between animal fat intake and breast cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis and review of epidemiological cohort studies, including data reported in the Pooling Project publication of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Random- and fixed-effects models were utilised to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE), and sensitivity and influence analyses were conducted. In the meta-analysis that included data reported in the Pooling Project publication of prospective cohorts (n 8) and subsequent publications of cohort studies (n 3), no significant association was observed comparing the highest category of animal fat intake with the lowest (SRRE 103; 95% CI: 076, 140). Similarly, no significant association between a 5% increment of energy from animal fat intake and breast cancer (SRRE 102; 95% CI 097, 107) was observed in the meta-analysis of these studies. In conclusion, the results of the present quantitative assessment are not supportive of a positive independent association between consumption of animal fat and breast cancer, although findings may be sensitive to the type of dietary instrument used in cohort studies. © 2010 The Authors. Source

Alexander D.D.,Exponent Health science Practice | Schmitt D.F.,Exponent Health science Practice | Tran N.L.,Exponent Health science Practice | Barraj L.M.,Exponent Health science Practice | Cushing C.A.,Exponent Health science Practice
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2010

The incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasingworldwide. Clinical studies have observed reduced risks of AD among infants fed with 100% whey partially hydrolyzed infant formula (PHF-W) compared with intact protein cow's milk formula. To evaluate this potential relationship more comprehensively, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies (n = 18, representing 12 distinct study populations) that specified the protein source of the formula, evaluated healthy-term infants, compared the use of PHF-W with intact protein cow's milk formula, and reported results for AD were included. A critical assessment of the methodological quality of studies was conducted. In all studies, a reduced incidence of AD and/or atopic manifestations that included AD was observed. The cumulative incidence of AD was significantly lower among infants over at least 3 years of follow-up in the PHF-W group compared with the intact protein cow's milk group. Exclusive breastfeeding should be encouraged as the primary means to preventatopic risk. However, when infants are not exclusively breastfed, PHF-W may be considered an effective measure to potentially reduce the risk of developing AD. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute. Source

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