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Nakatsura T.,Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2016

The dramatic and long durable anti-tumor effect of immune checkpoint blockade, such as anti-CTLA-4 Ab, anti-PD-1 Ab, and anti-PD-L1 Ab was surprised the world. In addition, CAR-T cell therapy that target the CD19 indicates a very high response rate to the CD19-positive hematologic malignancies. Now, no one doubts the presence of immunity against cancer. Further, accordingly, tumor-specific neoantigen are attention now, the clinical trials of individualized peptide vaccination that target patient individual neoantigens has begun in the Western. On the other hand, the peptide vaccine therapy that target common self-antigen is not yet been approved in Japan, the development is struggling. In this paper, I overview the cancer immunotherapy and neoantigen and introduce some development of cancer immunotherapy in Japan. © 2016 The Japan Society for Clinical Immunology.

Mizugaki H.,Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center | Yamamoto N.,Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center | Murakami H.,Shizuoka Cancer Center | Kenmotsu H.,Shizuoka Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2016

Summary: Background Atezolizumab is an engineered immunoglobulin monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathway. Methods In this phase I dose-finding study, we assessed the safety, feasibility, pharmacokinetics (PK), and exploratory anti-tumor activity of atezolizumab monotherapy up to 20 mg/kg in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors who had failed standard therapy or for whom there is no standard therapy. Results Six patients were enrolled and received intravenous atezolizumab every 3 weeks (q3w) at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg. Tumor types were non-small cell lung cancer (n = 3), melanoma (n = 1), pancreatic cancer (n = 1), and thymic cancer (n = 1). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. All adverse events (AEs) were grade 1 or 2 in severity. No discontinuations or deaths due to AEs were observed. As of the data cutoff, no partial responses were observed; however, stable disease was observed in all six patients. The maximum mean serum atezolizumab concentration was 220 μg/mL (SD ± 21.9), with 10-mg/kg dosing and 536 μg/mL (SD ± 49.4) with 20-mg/kg dosing. Three patients were still on treatment, and three of the six had achieved a progression-free survival of >12 months. Conclusions Atezolizumab was well tolerated in Japanese patients at doses up to 20 mg/kg q3w. The safety profile and Cycle 1 serum atezolizumab concentrations were similar to those previously observed in non-Japanese patients. These data support the participation of Japanese patients in ongoing pivotal global studies of atezolizumab. © 2016 The Author(s)

Neri S.,Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center | Neri S.,Kyoto University | Neri S.,National Cancer Center Hospital East | Hashimoto H.,Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

Purpose: As one form of tumor invasion, cancer cells can invade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through tracks that have been physically remodeled by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). However, CAFs are a heterogeneous population with diverse matrix-remodeling capacities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how CAFs with various matrix-remodeling capacities influence cancer cell invasion. Methods: We established single-cell-derived clones from three primary cultures of CAFs from lung adenocarcinoma patients (Case 1, 5 clones; Case 2, 5 clones; and Case 3, 7 clones). Using a co-culture model, we evaluated the correlations between the number of invaded cancer cells and the remodeling areas generated by CAF clones in each case. Results: When A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and CAF clones were co-cultured, both the numbers of invaded cancer cells and the remodeling areas generated by the CAF clones varied greatly. The number of invaded cancer cells was moderately and strongly correlated with the remodeling areas generated by each CAF clone originating from Cases 1 and 2 (R2 value = 0.53 and 0.68, respectively), suggesting that the remodeling areas in the ECM may determine the number of invaded cancer cells. In contrast, the number of invaded cancer cells was not correlated with the remodeling areas generated by CAF clones originating from Case 3, suggesting that factors other than the remodeling areas might determine the number of invading cancer cells. Conclusions: These findings showed two types of fibroblast-dependent cancer cell invasion that are dependent on and independent of the remodeling areas generated by CAFs. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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