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Suzuki A.,Tokyo Medical University | Wakaguri H.,University of Tokyo | Yamashita R.,Tohoku University | Kawano S.,Database Systems | And 4 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

DBTSS (http://dbtss.hgc.jp/) was originally constructed as a collection of uniquely determined transcriptional start sites (TSSs) in humans and some other species in 2002. Since then, it has been regularly updated and in recent updates epigenetic information has also been incorporated because such information is useful for characterizing the biological relevance of these TSSs/downstream genes. In the newest release, Release 9, we further integrated public and original single nucleotide variation (SNV) data into our database. For our original data, we generated SNV data from genomic analyses of various cancer types, including 97 lung adenocarcinomas and 57 lung small cell carcinomas from Japanese patients as well as 26 cell lines of lung cancer origin. In addition, we obtained publically available SNV data from other cancer types and germline variations in total of 11,322 individuals. With these updates, users can examine the association between sequence variation pattern in clinical lung cancers with its corresponding TSS-seq, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and BS-seq data. Consequently, DBTSS is no longer a mere storage site for TSS information but has evolved into an integrative platform of a variety of genome activity data. © The Author(s) 2014.

Nishikawa H.,Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center
Oncology | Year: 2015

Cancer immunotherapy is now becoming a promising modality of cancer treatment upon the clinical successes of adoptive T-cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockade. At the 30th Nagoya International Cancer Treatment Symposium, Marcel R.M. van den Brink (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) showed novel strategies to control malignant relapse and graft-versus-host disease, both major obstacles for clinical benefits in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Alexander M. Lesokhin (MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) presented an overview of immune checkpoint blockade, particularly focusing on hematologic malignancies stressing the importance of immunomonitoring to identify biomarkers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Suzuki S.,Nagoya University | Shibata K.,Nagoya University | Kikkawa F.,Nagoya University | Nakatsura T.,Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Carcinoembryonic antigen glypican-3 (GPC3) is expressed by > 40% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and is a promising immunotherapeutic target. We previously reported the safety of and immunological and clinical responses to a GPC3-derived peptide vaccine in a phase I clinical trial of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the efficacy of the GPC3-derived peptide vaccine against HCC patients was evaluated, other GPC3-positive cancer patients have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the clinical outcome of ovarian CCC patients treated with a GPC3-derived peptide vaccine. The GPC3 peptide was administered at a dose of 3 mg per body. Patients received an intradermal injection of the GPC3 peptide emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Vaccinations were performed biweekly from the first until the 6th injection and were then repeated at 6-week intervals after the 7th injection. Treatment continued until disease progression. We herein present two patients with chemotherapy-refractory ovarian CCC who achieved a significant clinical response in an ongoing trial of a GPC3 peptide vaccine. Case 1, a 42-year-old patient with advanced recurrent ovarian CCC with liver and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases, received the HLA-A24-restricted GPC3 peptide vaccine. Contrast-enhanced CT at week 10 revealed a partial response (PR) using RECIST criteria. Case 2 was a 67-year-old female with multiple lymph node metastases. She was injected with the HLA-A2-restricted GPC3 peptide vaccine. According to RECIST , PR was achieved at week 37. The stabilization of their diseases over one year provided us with the first clinical evidence to demonstrate that GPC3 peptide-based immunotherapy may significantly prolong the overall survival of patients with refractory ovarian CCC. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Kojima M.,Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center | Ochiai A.,Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center
Pathology International | Year: 2016

Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated. This characteristic tumor area was termed cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (CMPI). We elucidated histoanatomical layer-dependent heterogeneity of fibroblast in colonic tissue. Furthermore, subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) play a crucial role in tumor progression and metastasis in CMPI. Our ELI and CMPI concept contributes not only to objective pathological diagnosis, but also sheds light on biological research of special cancer microenvironments detectable in human colorectal cancers. Herein, we describe the diagnostic utility of ELI and morphological alteration in advanced colorectal cancers to determine the phenomenon that occurs when tumors invade around the peritoneal surface. Next, biological research of CMPI is reviewed to stress the importance of pathological research to establish new biological concepts. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

Tsuchiya N.,Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center | Tsuchiya N.,Yokohama City University | Sawada Y.,Yokohama City University | Endo I.,Yokohama City University | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite the high incidence, treatment options remain limited for advanced HCC, and as a result prognosis continues to be poor. Current therapeutic options, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have only modest efficacy. New treatment modalities to prolong survival and to minimize the risk of adverse response are desperately needed for patients with advanced HCC. Tumor immunotherapy is a promising, novel treatment strategy that may lead to improvements in both treatment-associated toxicity and outcome. The strategies have developed in part through genomic studies that have yielded candidate target molecules and in part through basic biology studies that have defined the pathways and cell types regulating immune response. Here, we summarize the various types of HCC immunotherapy and argue that the newfound field of HCC immunotherapy might provide critical advantages in the effort to improve prognosis of patients with advanced HCC. Already several immunotherapies, such as tumor-associated antigen therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors and cell transfer immunotherapy, have demonstrated safety and feasibility in HCC patients. Unfortunately, immunotherapy currently has low efficacy in advanced stage HCC patients; overcoming this challenge will place immunotherapy at the forefront of HCC treatment, possibly in the near future. © The Author(s) 2015.

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