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Santonicola S.,University of Naples | De Felice A.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy | Cobellis L.,The Second University of Naples | Passariello N.,The Second University of Naples | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

The study compared the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) profile of human milk collected from Italian mothers and different brands of infant formula available on Italian market. Levels of 14 PAHs most frequently occurred in food, PAH markers listed by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, and carcinogenic PAHs classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The average concentrations of total PAHs were 114.93 in breast milk and 53.68 μg kg−1 in infant formula. Furthermore, Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and the sum of ∑PAH4 markers (BaP, Chrysene, Benzo(a,h)anthracene and Benzo(b)fluoranthene) were higher than the permissible limit of 1 μg kg−1 in 43% and 86% for breast milk and in 10% and 76% for infant formula samples, respectively. Breast milk showed higher levels (P < 0.05) of carcinogenic, and possible carcinogenic hydrocarbons than infant formula samples. Both in human and commercial milk, data showed the occurrence of low and high molecular weight PAHs, respectively from petrogenic and pyrolytic environmental sources, characterizing the infant and mother exposure. Particularly, waste incineration could have represented an important exposure source for infants during breastfeeding, through exposition of mothers resident in some areas of Southern Italy. High PAH levels detected in infant formula enriched with LC-PUFA might be related to the contamination of the vegetable oils added as ingredients. Results showed a high percentage of samples of both breast milk and infant formulas with margin of exposure (MOE) value indicating a potential concern for consumer health. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Dore S.,National Reference Center for Sheep and Goat Mastitis Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sardinia | Liciardi M.,National Reference Center for Sheep and Goat Mastitis Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sardinia | Amatiste S.,National Reference Center for Ovine and Caprine Milk and Dairy Products Quality Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Lazio and Tuscany | Bergagna S.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte | And 9 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2016

Mastitis is the most important disease of dairy small ruminants affecting animal welfare, agricultural economy, and food safety. Only a few investigations on the bacterial epidemiology of udder infections have been performed. Aim of the study was to describe the Italian epidemiology of bacterial mastitis in small ruminant dairy herds. An ad hoc electronic data collection module was created by the National Reference Center for Sheep and Goat Mastitis (C.Re.N.M.O.C). Public health veterinary laboratories of the Experimental Zooprophylactic Institutes (EE.ZZ.II) (n = 10) were selected. Nine (90.0%) EE.ZZ.II. participated to the survey and 8 (87.5%) provided a full report. Bacteriological culture results from 30,232 sheep and goat milk samples collected in 1,795 herds between 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated bacteria in dairy sheep and goats, followed by Staphylococcus aureus; other bacterial species were Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus uberis, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Coryneiforms. Italian results confirm previous findings described in other countries; CNS are the most prevalent bacteria, probably due to subclinical symptoms, whereas Staphyloccocus aureus is the most prevalent clinical mastitis etiological agent. The present survey, based on the first, Italian standardized data electronic collection focused on small ruminant mastitis, may represent the backbone for future control and preventive strategies nationwide. © 2016 The Author(s)


Ferrante M.C.,University of Naples Federico II | Clausi M.T.,University of Naples Federico II | Naccari C.,Messina University | Fusco G.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) investigated in soft tissues of the frequently monitored Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared to those of Ensis siliqua, a highly dispersed and economically important bivalve species, though rarely investigated. Overall PCBs had higher concentrations than OCPs in both species with a prevalence of tri-tetra-And penta-chlorinated biphenyls in E. siliqua and a prevalence of hexa-hepta and octa-chlorinated biphenyls in M. galloprovincialis. E. siliqua emerges as a suitable complement to mussels for monitoring PCBs and OCPs pollution. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014.


Nizza S.,University of Naples Federico II | Mallardo K.,University of Naples Federico II | Manco E.,University of Naples Federico II | Marullo A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2010

Lethal episodes in buffalo calf due to rotavirus and E. coli 0157:H7 is herein reported. Eight 30-day-old buffalo calves with severe diarrhoea were studied by bacteriological and virological examinations on their faecal samples. Episodes with rotavirus alone were more less severe as compared to episodes where co-infection with E. coli was found. The group A rotavirus isolates were characterized for G- and P-type and the E. coli strains were analysed by Vero cell assay and PCR. This study shows the presence of group A rotavirus of G6-P[5] serotypes and E. coli 0157:H7 (EHEC) in faecal samples. So far the concomitant presence of rotavirus and E. coli 0157:H7 in cases of enteritis in Bubalus bubalis in Italy is not reported in the literature. Diarrhoeal diseases caused by the above pathogens mostly affect young children, and those who live in rural areas usually have more infection from animals than those of urban dwellers. Our data might indicate a potential risk factor existing for the farm workers in buffalo-breedings in Italy.


Sasso S.,University of Naples Federico II | Desio G.,University of Naples Federico II | Montagnaro S.,University of Naples Federico II | Fiorito F.,University of Naples Federico II | And 6 more authors.
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2010

Protection against BuHV-1 infection induced by inactivated or attenuated marker BoHV-1 based vaccines was analysed. Two groups of buffalo calves were immunized with inactivated or attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccines. A third group was not vaccinated and used as control. In the post-vaccination period, we studied the immune response. The efficacy of the vaccines was tested after intranasal challenge of the calves with virulent BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 strains. Control animals showed signs associated with BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 infection and high levels of virus shedding. Calves immunized with the inactivated or attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccines were protected against BoHV-1/BuHV-1 disease and significantly reduced virus shedding. Our study provides evidence of the existence of cross-protection between BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 in buffalo calves.


Fusco G.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy | Amoroso M.G.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy | Gesualdi Montesano N.,Qiagen | Viscardi M.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy
MethodsX | Year: 2015

Identification of herpesvirus in biological material is usually carried out by real-time PCR. With the aim to classify the strain of virus identified, real-time PCR must be often supported by time-consuming capillary electrophoresis sequencing analysis. Here we provide a protocol for the rapid and reliable identification of 5 closely related herpesviruses by PyroMark Q24 sequencing system. PyroMark performs DNA sequencing analysis using pyrosequencing, a technology based on the detection of released pyrophosphate during DNA elongation [1]. PyroMark is designed to detect changes in specified variable positions of the DNA. It can efficiently detect single nucleotide differences in sequences [2]. In the present paper we describe a protocol to pyrosequence a small polymorphic segment of the US8 gene. On the basis of the differences identified in the nucleotide sequence we could readily classify the herpesvirus as Bovine herpesvirus 1.1, Bovine herpesvirus 1.2, Bovine herpesvirus 5, Bubaline herpesvirus 1 or Caprine herpesvirus. The protocol set up offers several advantages with respect to the techniques commonly used: it requires less than one working day to be carried;it gives the possibility to analyze, at reasonable costs, up to 24 samples at a time; andit allows to detect with great reliability and specificity strongly genetically correlated organisms like the herpesviruses named above. The procedure can be easily applied to other families of viruses, with opportune modifications. © 2015 The Authors.


Montagnaro S.,University of Naples Federico II | Sasso S.,University of Naples Federico II | De Martino L.,University of Naples Federico II | Longo M.,University of Naples Federico II | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

Serum samples were collected from wild boars (Sus scrofa) harvested during the 2005-2006 hunting season in Campania, southern Italy. Samples were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogan, Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), porcine reproductive and respiratory stress syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Of the 342 serum samples tested, 1.5 (4.4%) were seropositive to Brucella spp., nine (2.6%) were seropositive to L. interrogans, 66 (19.3%) were seropositive for Salmonella spp., 105 (30.7%) were seropositive for ADV, 27 (7.9%) were seropositive for PPV, and 129 (37.7%) were seropositive for PRRSV. All sera tested seronegative for SVDV and CSFV antibodies. These results, recorded for the first time in Campania, support the hypothesis that wild boar are reservoirs of certain infectious agents, but some infections in wild boars originate from their domestic counterparts. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.


PubMed | Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy and Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Type: | Journal: Food and environmental virology | Year: 2017

In this study, the prevalence of various enteric viruses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) belonging to class A and class B mollusc-harvesting areas in the Campania region in southern Italy was evaluated. One hundred and eight mussels were analysed using real-time reverse transcription PCR during a 2-year collection period (2014-2015) to detect the following viruses: human norovirus (genogroups I and II), rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, aichivirus, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. Overall, 50.93% of mussels were contaminated by at least one of the tested viruses. Of these virus-positive mussels, 63.63% were contaminated by two or more viruses. In 2014, only three of the eight investigated viruses were detected: astrovirus, sapovirus and aichivirus, whereas in 2015, seven of the eight viruses were detected (only hepatitis E virus was not identified). Astrovirus was the most frequently detected virus in both sampling periods. In 2014, sapovirus was detected at the same frequency as astrovirus (16.00%), followed by aichivirus (8%). In 2015, astrovirus (32.53%) was most frequently detected, followed by norovirus GII (26.50%), sapovirus (18.07%), hepatitis A virus (16.87%), rotavirus (16.87%), aichivirus (13.25%) and norovirus GI (12.05%).This study describes, for the first time, the presence of aichivirus and sapovirus in mussels in Italy.


PubMed | Messina University, University of Naples Federico II and Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016

Several organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in European eels from the Tevere river (Italy). It followed that some of them are still important chemical contaminants. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) are hazardous for the consumer health; those of the 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often close to the current European maximum residue limit and always higher than the former limit. The relationship between OC concentrations, biometric parameters and the lipid content was then investigated. A strong positive correlation with eel size emerged for the indicator PCBs and DDTs concentrations expressed on wet weight basis. This is explained by the corresponding higher lipid percentage that characterizes bigger eels and the absence of a dilution effect for compounds of main concerns. On the basis of the PCB-TDI threshold for a 70 kg person, we suggest that 1 should consume no more than 2 eels per week each weighing about 100 g. Thus, we conclude that eel consumption should be limited and restricted to eels relatively shorter and lighter.

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