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Di Martino B.,University of Teramo | Di Profio F.,University of Teramo | Melegari I.,University of Teramo | Sarchese V.,University of Teramo | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

By screening a collection of fecal samples from young cats housed in three different shelters in South Italy, noroviruses (NoVs) were found in 3/48 (6.2%) specimens of animals with enteritis signs while they were not detected in samples collected from healthy cats (0/57). Upon sequence analysis of the short RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region, the three strains displayed the highest nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identities to the prototype GIV.2 strain lion/Pistoia/387/06/ITA (91.0-93.0% nt and 97.0-98.0% aa). The sequence of ~. 3.4-kb portion at the 3' end of the genome of a NoV strain, TE/77-13/ITA, was determined. In the full-length ORF2, encoding the VP1 capsid protein, the virus was genetically closest to the canine GVI.2 NoV strains C33/Viseu/2007/PRT and FD53/2007/ITA (81.0-84.0% nt and 93.0-94.0% aa identities), suggesting a recombination nature, with the cross-over site being mapped to the ORF1-ORF2 junction. Based on the full-length VP1 amino acid sequence, we classified the novel feline NoV, together with the canine strains Viseu and FD53, as a genotype 2, within the genogroup GVI. These findings indicate that, as observed for GIV NoV, GVI strains may infect both the canine and feline host. Unrestricted circulation of NoV strains in small carnivores may provide the basis for quick genetic diversification of these viruses by recombination. Interspecies circulation of NoVs in pets must also be considered when facing outbreaks of enteric diseases in these animals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Peletto S.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte | Bertuzzi S.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte | Campanella C.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte | Modesto P.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

The use of reference genes is commonly accepted as the most reliable approach to normalize qRT-PCR and to reduce possible errors in the quantification of gene expression. The most suitable reference genes in sheep have been identified for a restricted range of tissues, but no specific data on whole blood are available. The aim of this study was to identify a set of reference genes for normalizing qRT-PCR from ovine whole blood. We designed 11 PCR assays for commonly employed reference genes belonging to various functional classes and then determined their expression stability in whole blood samples from control and disease-stressed sheep. SDHA and YWHAZ were considered the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed regardless of disease status according to both geNorm and NormFinder software; furthermore, geNorm indicated SDHA/HPRT, YWHAZ/GAPDH and SDHA/YWHAZ as the best reference gene combinations in control, disease-stressed and combined sheep groups, respectively. Our study provides a validated panel of optimal control genes which may be useful for the identification of genes differentially expressed by qRT-PCR in a readily accessible tissue, with potential for discovering new physiological and disease markers and as a tool to improve production traits (e.g., by identifying expression Quantitative Trait Loci). An additional outcome of the study is a set of intron-spanning primer sequences suitable for gene expression experiments employing SYBR Green chemistry on other ovine tissues and cells. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Dore S.,National Reference Center for Sheep and Goat Mastitis Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sardinia | Liciardi M.,National Reference Center for Sheep and Goat Mastitis Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sardinia | Amatiste S.,National Reference Center for Ovine and Caprine Milk and Dairy Products Quality Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Lazio and Tuscany | Bergagna S.,Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte | And 9 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2016

Mastitis is the most important disease of dairy small ruminants affecting animal welfare, agricultural economy, and food safety. Only a few investigations on the bacterial epidemiology of udder infections have been performed. Aim of the study was to describe the Italian epidemiology of bacterial mastitis in small ruminant dairy herds. An ad hoc electronic data collection module was created by the National Reference Center for Sheep and Goat Mastitis (C.Re.N.M.O.C). Public health veterinary laboratories of the Experimental Zooprophylactic Institutes (EE.ZZ.II) (n = 10) were selected. Nine (90.0%) EE.ZZ.II. participated to the survey and 8 (87.5%) provided a full report. Bacteriological culture results from 30,232 sheep and goat milk samples collected in 1,795 herds between 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated bacteria in dairy sheep and goats, followed by Staphylococcus aureus; other bacterial species were Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus uberis, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Coryneiforms. Italian results confirm previous findings described in other countries; CNS are the most prevalent bacteria, probably due to subclinical symptoms, whereas Staphyloccocus aureus is the most prevalent clinical mastitis etiological agent. The present survey, based on the first, Italian standardized data electronic collection focused on small ruminant mastitis, may represent the backbone for future control and preventive strategies nationwide. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

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