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Caruso G.,University of Naples Federico II | Villari G.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry | Melchionna G.,University of Naples Federico II | Conti S.,University of Naples Federico II
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Alpine strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) was grown in hydroponics with the nutrient film technique, in order to evaluate the effects of four buffer concentrations (1.3, 1.6, 1.9, 2.2mScm-1) and two cultural cycles (summer-spring versus autumn-spring) in terms of growth, yield and fruit quality (dry and optical residues, sugars, acids, antioxidants, mineral composition). The longer summer-spring cycle gave a correspondingly higher yield than the autumn-spring one. The 1.3mScm-1 nutrient solution was the most effective in terms of overall and spring production. However, the autumn and winter yields were not affected by the buffer EC. Fruit quality did not change with the cultural cycle, but the berries harvested in the spring had higher vitamin C and sucrose content and lower nitrate content compared with berries picked up in the winter. Fruit quality was also improved when the nutrient solution concentration increased. From the productive point of view, the cultural cycle choice should be made considering that 71% of the yield of the more productive summer-spring cycle derived from the spring harvest. Moreover, as regards the nutrient solution strength, 1.3mScm-1 EC should be preferred during the spring season, whereas the 2.2mScm-1 EC proved to be best in the winter in terms of fruit quality. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Caruso G.,University of Naples Federico II | Conti S.,University of Naples Federico II | Villari G.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry | Borrelli C.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four transplanting times (1 February, 16 February, 3 March, 18 March) and three plant densities (21.2, 27.2 and 38.1ptm-2) on the growth, productivity and bulb quality indicators (size, dry weight, soluble solids content, sugars, acids, amino acids, antioxidants, mineral composition) of long-day onion crops, cultivar "Ramata di Montoro".Crop yield, bulb mean weight and calibre decreased significantly from the earliest to the latest transplanting time. Plant density did not affect production significantly but the most spaced crop (21.2ptm-2) produced bulbs of the biggest size.The bulb quality indicators responded differently to transplanting time: dry weight, glucose, fructose, raffinose, citric and malic acids and vitamin C content did not change; soluble solids content, sucrose, and oxalic acid increased from the 1 February to the 18 March transplanting time, while pyruvic acid, calcium, chlorides and nitrates content decreased. The sequence of transplanting times resulted in complex pattern of variations of the mineral composition and of the free amino acid content of the bulbs. The bulb total polyphenol content did not vary with the transplanting time and it was about 7mgg-1 dry weight, with the outer skins containing more than double polyphenols compared to the inner fresh scales.This research on "Ramata di Montoro" onion has shown that early transplanting increases bulb yield and size, whereas some aspects of bulb quality improve with late transplants. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Conti S.,University of Naples Federico II | Villari G.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry | Faugno S.,University of Naples Federico II | Melchionna G.,University of Naples Federico II | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Organic foods represent a significant market segment within the global food industry, since these products are often believed to be safer and more nutritious than their conventional counterparts. Due to the growing importance of organic strawberry cultivation for several agricultural areas in Italy, we carried out a four year research (2008-2011) on Fragaria×. ananassa grown under tunnel in Campania (southern Italy), with the purpose of assessing the effects of two farming systems (organic or conventional) combined with propagation material (fresh or cold stored plants) and crop duration (annual or biennial) on yield and quality. The experimental treatments were randomized in a split-plot design, assigning the farming systems to the main plots and the propagation material in factorial combination with the crop duration to the subplots, with three replicates.The conventional system produced the highest yield, as a consequence of the higher fruit number per plant, while the organic management resulted in increased berry mean weight. Organic fruits showed higher values of dry and optical residue and higher content of glucose, sucrose, vitamin C and ß-carotene but lower nitrate. Fresh plant crops produced a lower yield than the cold stored ones; moreover, the fruit production of fresh plants was higher when grown as an annual crops compared with a biennial cycle, independently on the farming system. In the case of cold stored plants, no yield differences were recorded between annual and biennial cultivations under conventional management, whereas organic crops from cold stored plants showed higher yields as annual crops compared with the biennial cycle. Fruit dry residue as well as sucrose, malic acid and mineral element content attained higher values in the fruits harvested from biennial crops than from the annual ones.The choice of organic system as an alternative to the conventional practice could be justified by the better fruit quality, lower environmental impact and higher market prices. Moreover, the biennial crop duration could be a cost effective option when the crop is started from cold stored plants under organic management. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Conti S.,University of Naples Federico II | Villari G.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry | Amico E.,University of Naples Federico II | Caruso G.,University of Naples Federico II
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Research was carried out on butternut squash cultivar "Waltham F1", following the organic agriculture practice, in order to evaluate the effects of two production systems (open field and greenhouse) and four transplanting times (16 April, 30 April, 14 May, 28 May in the open field; 2 April, 16 April, 30 April, 14 May in the greenhouse) on growth, productivity and fruit quality indicators at harvest and during an eight months storage of fruits. Yield, number and mean weight of fruits showed a better performance in greenhouse than in open field crops. The highest yields were recorded with the second and the third transplanting time. Greenhouse crops produced fruits with higher values of dry weight, sucrose, total proteins and ascorbate, whereas the open field cultivation produced fruits with better values of glucose, fructose, total acidity, ash, colour and carotenoids content. Most quality indicators increased from the first to the fourth transplanting; starch, total proteins and ascorbate did not vary. The open field crops produced fruits with higher content of calcium, potassium, copper and iron, but lower nitrates compared with the greenhouse cultivation. The fruit mineral content decreased from the earliest to the latest transplanting time, with the only exception of calcium, which increased. During the eight months storage a complex evolution pattern was recorded: dry matter and starch content in the fruits decreased; glucose and fructose increased; soluble solids, sucrose, acidity, total proteins, ash and colour showed an initial increase followed by a later decrease; the mineral composition did not change with time.The greenhouse system proved to be more effective than the open field management in terms of yield and, to a certain extent, of fruit quality. The intermediate transplanting performed in the second half of April in greenhouse, and in the first half of May in the open field, gave the nearest match in yield and fruit quality. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Anastasio A.,University of Naples Federico II | Smaldone G.,University of Naples Federico II | Cacace D.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry | Marrone R.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2016

There is an increasing reporting of Anisakiasis in humans at the world level and this disease has become a concern for the public health and for the fish and derived product trade. Humans acquire the infection by the ingestion of live larvae present in raw or almost raw (e.g., marinate, salted) fish products if the processing is insufficient to devitalize the worms. The aim of this study was to asses a dry salting process in killing Anisakis pegreffii larvae in naturally infected European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and to evaluate the quality assessment. The results show that a dry salting process with a salt concentration of 21% in all parts of the anchovy fillets devitalize A. pegreffii larvae in a 15 day period. The finished product showed a good panel acceptance and anchovies reached a good quality grade. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Donadini G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Fumi M.D.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Vanoni L.,National Research Council Italy | Porretta S.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2012

The hedonic response of preschoolers to six Protected Denomination of Origin Italian cheeses has been investigated. Cheese samples were Mozzarella di bufala, Parmigiano Reggiano, Fontina, Taleggio, Gorgonzola and Pecorino Romano. Sensory tests revealed that Mozzarella di bufala and Parmigiano Reggiano were the most liked cheeses. Gorgonzola was the least appreciated cheese. Patterns of preference for cheese were not linear, depending on the joint effect of gender and cheese variety eaten. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the preference data identified five groups of children with different cheese likes and dislikes. Partial Least Square Regression modeling of cheese acceptability of sensory-driven children subgroups with homogeneous cheese preference revealed different focusing on sensory characteristics of cheese among clusters. Nearly one child out of two focused either on cheese flavors and textures whereas nearly one child out of eight exclusively on flavors. These results were substantiated by children open discussion in focus groups. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Donadini G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Fumi M.D.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Porretta S.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Aim of this study was to assess how different preparation methods influence the hedonic response to vegetables of preschoolers aged four to five. Children (n = 52) scored for liking on a 5-point non gender facial scale six vegetables (carrot, tomato, zucchini, spinach, fennel and Catalogna chicory) prepared in three different ways: raw, boiled and oven-baked.A trained sensory panel determined the sensory profile of vegetable dishes. Significant differences in liking (P < 0.001) were found across dishes. Vegetable liking depended significantly on the vegetable type, the method of preparation which modulates the effect of vegetable type, and the heterogeneity in individual children response. Suitability of preparation method was specific to individual vegetable and could not be generalized to all types of vegetables.Neophobia and familiarity with specific vegetable types had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on liking.Nearly one child out of two related vegetable acceptance to sensory characteristics of vegetables. For sensory oriented children, sweetness and original colour intensity affected positively vegetable acceptance while bitterness, brown colouring and tough texture lowered acceptance.These results help to optimize the sensory properties preferred by children through the selection of the most appealing preparation method for a given vegetable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Donadini G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Fumi M.D.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Porretta S.,Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2013

Preschoolers' hedonic response to fish dishes was investigated by actual tasting in a natural environment of consumption. Cod with tomato sauce (CTS), plaice with tomato sauce (PTS) and oven-baked breaded plaice (OBBP) were scored during school lunch by 90 preschoolers on a 5-point nongender facial scale. Liking varied significantly (P<0.001) across dishes. CTS and OBBP were highly appreciated and significantly preferred to PTS, which was disliked. Cluster analysis identified four groups of children with homogeneous preference patterns. Nearly 4 children out of 10 equally liked OBBP and CTS, and disliked PTS. Nearly one child out of three equally liked all the dishes. One child out of seven preferred OBBP to fish dishes with tomato sauce. One child out of 10 preferred CTS to dishes with plaice. Acceptance was related not only to objective sensory properties of fish dishes but also on background characteristics of the children. Familiarity with the fish dish, the reported liking of the target fish types as well as the neophobic status of children modulate the hedonic response to fish dishes. For nearly 6 children out of 10, liking is positively related to fish odor, fish flavor and greasiness, whereas it is negatively related to softness, jelly-like texture, fast melting and falling apart easily textures. For one child out of seven, liking is positively related to bread-related attributes and negatively with tomato-related attributes. For 1 child out of 10, liking is negatively related to tomato-related attributes and fish odor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

Safety is the prime consideration and food manufacturers must ensure that products pose a minimum hazard to the consumer. The required safety must be achieved by preventing growth of pathogens during production and by reducing the remaining contamination to the lowest possible level. Dry and semi-dry fermented sausages are generally regarded as one of the most shelf-stable and safest meat products; they have rarely been implicated in food poisoning but sausage makers must ensure that their products do not harbour any pathogen bacteria. To ensure that processing is sufficient to eliminate any biological hazard present in the product, procedures must be validated to demonstrate that they are able to achieve a specified reduction in terms of pathogenic bacteria.


PubMed | Experimental Station for the Food Preserving Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

Antimicrobial packaging, an active packaging concept, can be considered an extremely challenging technology that could have a significant impact on shelf-life extension and food safety of meat and meat products. Use of antimicrobial substances can control the microbial population and target specific microorganisms to provide higher safety and quality products. Many classes of antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures, both synthetic polymers and edible films: organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins, and miscellaneous compounds such as triclosan, silver zeolites, and fungicides. The characteristics of some antimicrobial packaging systems are reviewed in this article. The regulatory status of antimicrobial packaging in EU is also examined.

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