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Clewell R.A.,Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences | Thomas A.,Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences | Willson G.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc. | Creasy D.M.,Huntingdon Life science | Andersen M.E.,Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences
Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2013

Male rat sexual development was evaluated after dietary administration of 0, 760, 3800, 11,400. ppm diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and 7600. ppm dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from gestation day (GD) 12 to postnatal day (PND) 14. Maternal weight was reduced on GD 20, PND 2 and 14 at 11,400. ppm DiNP. Pup weight was reduced on PND 2 and 14 at 11,400 and 3800. ppm DiNP. DBP induced multinucleated germ cells (MNGs) and Leydig cell aggregates (LCAs) in PND 2 testes. 7600. ppm DBP reduced anogenital distance (AGD) on PND 2 and 14, and increased nipple retention and reproductive tract malformations on PND 49. DiNP induced MNGs (3800. ppm) and LCAs (11,400. ppm) on PND 2, and reduced AGD (11,400. ppm) on PND 14. DiNP did not alter AGD, nipple retention or reproductive tract malformations on PND 49. Global endpoint analysis showed no evidence of a rat " phthalate syndrome" on PND 49 with DiNP administration. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Adams E.T.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2011

The 2010 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Chicago, Illinois, in advance of the scientific symposium sponsored jointly by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP). The goal of the annual NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers' presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for voting or discussion. Some topics covered during the symposium included a comparison of rat and mouse hepatocholangiocarcinoma, a comparison of cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in rats, a mixed pancreatic neoplasm with acinar and islet cell components, an unusual preputial gland tumor, renal hyaline glomerulopathy in rats and mice, eosinophilic substance in the nasal septum of mice, INHAND nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the CNS/PNS, retinal gliosis in a rat, fibroadnexal hamartoma in rats, intramural plaque in a mouse, a treatment-related chloracne-like lesion in mice, and an overview of mouse ovarian tumors.

Rao D.B.,Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. | Little P.B.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc. | Sills R.C.,National Health Research Institute
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

This review article is designed to serve as an introductory guide in neuroanatomy for toxicologic pathologists evaluating general toxicity studies. The article provides an overview of approximately 50 neuroanatomical subsites and their functional significance across 7 transverse sections of the brain. Also reviewed are 3 sections of the spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves (trigeminal and sciatic, respectively), and intestinal autonomic ganglia. The review is limited to the evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections, as light microscopic evaluation of these sections is an integral part of the first-tier toxicity screening of environmental chemicals, drugs, and other agents. Prominent neuroanatomical sites associated with major neurological disorders are noted. This guide, when used in conjunction with detailed neuroanatomic atlases, may aid in an understanding of the significance of functional neuroanatomy, thereby improving the characterization of neurotoxicity in general toxicity and safety evaluation studies. © 2013 by The Author(s).

Nikula K.J.,Seventh Wave Laboratories LLC | Funk K.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2016

Necropsies conducted to support medical device development may be conducted in facilities that do not have the infrastructure in place to support Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (GLP) studies and for a variety of reasons they may be conducted without a pathologist present at necropsy. However, when a novel medical device or one that is expected to significantly alter tissues is deployed, or when the surgical model confounds interpretation of device effects, it is the opinion of the authors that an experienced pathologist should be present at necropsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

Pandiri A.R.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

Exocrine pancreas is a source of several enzymes that are essential for the digestive process. The exocrine pancreatic secretion is tightly regulated by the neuroendocrine system. The endocrine pancreas is tightly integrated anatomically and physiologically with the exocrine pancreas and modulates its function. Compound-induced pancreatitis is not a common event in toxicology or drug development, but it becomes a significant liability when encountered. Understanding the species-specific differences in physiology is essential to understand the underlying pathobiology of pancreatic disease in animal models and its relevance to human disease. This review will mainly focus on understanding the morphology and physiology of the pancreas, unique islet-exocrine interactions, and pancreatitis. © 2013 by The Author(s).

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