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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Sarcomas are mesenchymal tumors characterized by blocked differentiation process. In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) both CD99 and EWS-FLI1 concur to oncogenesis and inhibition of differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that uncoupling CD99 from EWS-FLI1 by silencing the former, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is inhibited and the neural differentiation program is re-established. NF-κB inhibition passes through miR-34a-mediated repression of Notch pathway. CD99 counteracts EWS-FLI1 in controlling NF-κB signaling through the miR-34a, which is increased and secreted into exosomes released by CD99-silenced EWS cells. Delivery of exosomes from CD99-silenced cells was sufficient to induce neural differentiation in recipient EWS cells through miR-34a inhibition of Notch-NF-κB signaling. Notably, even the partial delivery of CD99 small interfering RNA may have a broad effect on the entire tumor cell population owing to the spread operated by their miR-34a-enriched exosomes, a feature opening to a new therapeutic option.Oncogene advance online publication, 30 November 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.463. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source

Villarreal-Garza C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | De La Mata D.,INCan | Zavala D.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | MacEdo-Perez E.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer

Between 30% and 50% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will develop cerebral metastases in the course of their illness. As improvements are made in the local brain treatment, the question arises on how to manage patients with NSCLC who have solely stable brain metastatic disease and if treatment should be considered for the primary lung lesion. The present article will review published series of patients with NSCLC and with brain metastases treated with aggressive thoracic management, with either lung tumor resection or thoracic radiation with or without chemotherapy as definitive treatment. We will also assess which prognostic factors may be useful in the identification of the subset of patients who could benefit from this more aggressive approach. For patients treated with surgical resection for the primary lung tumor, median survival ranged from 19 to 27 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival reached 56%-69%, 28%-54%, and 11%-24%, respectively. Patients treated with aggressive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, achieved a median survival of 15.5-31.8 months, with a 1-year survival of 50%-71%, and a 2-year survival of 16%-60%. Well-selected patients with NSCLC and with exclusively oligometastatic cerebral disease represent a subgroup of patients with stage IV NSCLC that might achieve long-term survival after treatment directed to the brain and lung tumor lesions. Patients with N0 or N1 disease may be selected for surgical thoracic treatment, whereas those with N2 or N3 disease may benefit from combined chemoradiotherapy in the absence of progression after induction chemotherapy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Muller W.A.,Northwestern University | Dominici S.,Urbino University | Watson R.,Northwestern University | Weber E.,Northwestern University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods

Migration of leukocytes into site of inflammation involves several steps mediated by various families of adhesion molecules. CD99 play a significant role in transendothelial migration (TEM) of leukocytes. Inhibition of TEM by specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) can provide a potent therapeutic approach to treating inflammatory conditions. However, the therapeutic utilization of whole IgG can lead to an inappropriate activation of Fc receptor-expressing cells, inducing serious adverse side effects due to cytokine release. In this regard, specific recombinant antibody in single chain variable fragments (scFvs) originated by phage library may offer a solution by affecting TEM function in a safe clinical context. However, this consideration requires large scale production of functional scFv antibodies and the absence of toxic reagents utilized for solubilization and refolding step of inclusion bodies that may discourage industrial application of these antibody fragments. In order to apply the scFv anti-CD99 named C7A in a clinical setting, we herein describe an efficient and large scale production of the antibody fragments expressed in E. coli as periplasmic insoluble protein avoiding gel filtration chromatography approach, and laborious refolding step pre- and post-purification. Using differential salt elution which is a simple, reproducible and effective procedure we are able to separate scFv in monomer format from aggregates. The purified scFv antibody C7A exhibits inhibitory activity comparable to an antagonistic conventional mAb, thus providing an excellent agent for blocking CD99 signaling. This protocol can be useful for the successful purification of other monomeric scFvs which are expressed as periplasmic inclusion bodies in bacterial systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Rojas-Puentes L.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Of Mexico Incan | Gonzalez-Pinedo M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Of Mexico Incan | Crismatt A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Of Mexico Incan | Ortega-Gomez A.,Translational Medicine Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Radiation Oncology

Background and purpose: Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors.Methods: Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later.Results: The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms.Conclusion: Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings. © 2013 Rojas-Puentes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ferrari S.,Chemotherapy Unit | Perut F.,Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory | Fagioli F.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | Brach Del Prever A.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine

Background: Major goals in translational oncology are to reduce systemic toxicity of current anticancer strategies and improve effectiveness. An extremely efficient cancer cell mechanism to avoid and/or reduce the effects of highly cytotoxic drugs is the establishment of an acidic microenvironment, an hallmark of all malignant tumors. The H + -rich milieu that anticancer drugs meet once they get inside the tumor leads to their protonation and neutralization, therefore hindering their access into tumor cells. We have previously shown that proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may efficiently counterattack this tumor advantage leading to a consistent chemosensitization of tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of PPI in chemosensitizing osteosarcoma.Method: MG-63 and Saos-2 cell lines were used as human osteosarcoma models. Cell proliferation after pretreatment with PPI and subsequent treatment with cisplatin was evaluated by using erythrosin B dye vital staining. Tumour growth was evaluated in xenograft treated with cisplatin after PPI pretreatment. Subsequently, a multi-centre historically controlled trial, was performed to evaluate the activity of a pre-treatment administration of PPIs as chemosensitizers during neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on methotrexate, cisplatin, and adriamycin.Results: Preclinical experiments showed that PPI sensitize both human osteosarcoma cell lines and xenografts to cisplatin. A clinical study subsequently showed that pretreatment with PPI drug esomeprazole leads to an increase in the local effect of chemotherapy, as expressed by percentage of tumor necrosis. This was particularly evident in chondroblastic osteosarcoma, an histological subtype that normally shows a poor histological response. Notably, no significant increase in toxicity was recorded in PPI treated patients.Conclusion: This study provides the first evidence that PPI may be beneficially added to standard regimens in combination to conventional chemotherapy. © 2013 Ferrari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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