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Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

Kraus J.,Experimental Oncology and Hematology | Kraus M.,Experimental Oncology and Hematology | Liu N.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry and Netherlands Proteomics Center | Besse L.,Experimental Oncology and Hematology | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Proteasome-inhibiting drugs (PI) are gaining importance in hematologic oncology. The proteasome carries three proteolytically active subunits (β1, β2, β5). All established PI (bortezomib and carfilzomib), as well as experimental drugs in the field (dalanzomib, oprozomib, and ixazomib), by design target the rate-limiting β5 subunit. It is unknown whether β2-selective proteasome inhibition can also be exploited toward anticancer treatment. Combining PI with the pan B-cell-directed Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib appears a natural option for future improved treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and B-cell lymphomas. However, bortezomib induces phosphorylation of IκB and activation of NF-κB in MM cells, while ibrutinib inhibits the IκB/NF-κB axis, suggesting antagonistic signaling. A β2-selective proteasome inhibitor may lack such antagonistic signaling effects. Methods: We recently introduced LU-102, the first β2-selective PI available for preclinical testing. We here compare bortezomib with carfilzomib and LU-102 in MM and MCL in vitro with regard to their effects on pIκB/NF-κB signaling and their cytotoxic activity in combination with ibrutinib. Results: LU-102 reduced phosphorylation of IκB, in contrast to bortezomib and carfilzomib, and was a superior inhibitor of NF-κB activation in MM cells. This translated into highly synergistic cytotoxicity between LU-102 and ibrutinib, which was able to overcome BTZ resistance and CFZ resistance. By contrast, BTZ lacked consistent synergistic cytotoxicity with ibrutinib. Conclusion: Ibrutinib is highly synergistic with β2-selective proteasome inhibition against MM and MCL in vitro. Novel β2-selective proteasome inhibitors may be exploited to overcome bortezomib/carfilzomib resistance and boost the activity of BTK inhibitors against B-cell-derived malignancies. © 2015 The Author(s).

Kraus M.,Experimental Oncology and Hematology | Bader J.,Experimental Oncology and Hematology | Geurink P.P.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry and Netherlands Proteomics Center | Weyburne E.S.,Norris Cotton Cancer Center | And 14 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2015

Proteasome inhibitor resistance is a challenge for myeloma therapy. Bortezomib targets the β5 and β1 activity, but not the β2 activity of the proteasome. Bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells down-regulate the activation status of the unfolded protein response, and up-regulate β2 proteasome activity. To improve proteasome inhibition in bortezomib-resistant myeloma and to achieve more efficient UPR activation, we have developed LU-102, a selective inhibitor of the β2 proteasome activity. LU-102 inhibited the β2 activity in intact myeloma cells at low micromolar concentrations without relevant co-inhibition of β1 and β5 proteasome subunits. In protea-some inhibitor-resistant myeloma cells, significantly more potent proteasome inhibition was achieved by bortezomib or carfilzomib in combination with LU-102, compared to bortezomib/carfilzomib alone, resulting in highly synergistic cytotoxic activity of the drug combination via endoplasmatic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. Combining bortezomib/carfilzomib with LU-102 significantly prolonged proteasome inhibition and increased activation of the unfolded protein response and IRE1-a activity. IRE1-a has recently been shown to control myeloma cell differentiation and bortezomib sensitivity (Leung-Hagesteijn, Cancer Cell 24:3, 289-304). Thus, β2-selective proteasome inhibition by LU-102 in combination with bortezomib or carfilzomib re-sults in synergistic proteasome inhibition, activation of the unfolded protein response, and cytotoxicity, and overcomes bortezomib/carfilzomib resistance in myeloma cells in vitro. © 2015 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

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