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Merialdi G.,Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Even though dairy cows are known carriers of Arcobacter species and raw or minimally processed foods are recognized as the main sources of human Arcobacter infections in industrialized countries, data on Arcobacter excretion patterns in cows and in milk are scant. This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic Arcobacter species in a dairy herd and to investigate the routes of Arcobacter transmission among animals and the potential sources of cattle infection and milk contamination. A strategy of sampling the same 50 dairy animals, feed, water, and milk every month for a 10-month period, as well as the sampling of quarter milk, animal teats, the milking environment, and animals living on the farm (pigeons and cats), was used to evaluate, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the characteristic patterns in animals, their living environment, and the raw milk they produced. Of the 463 samples collected, 105 (22.6%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. by culture examination. All the matrices except quarter milk and pigeon gut samples were positive, with prevalences ranging from 15 to 83% depending on the sample. Only three Arcobacter species, Arcobacter cryaerophilus (54.2%), A. butzleri (34.2%), and A. skirrowii (32.3%), were detected. PFGE analysis of 370 isolates from positive samples provided strong evidence of Arcobacter circulation in the herd: cattle likely acquire the microorganisms by orofecal transmission, either by direct contact or from the environment, or both. Water appears to be a major source of animal infection. Raw milk produced by the farm and collected from a bulk tank was frequently contaminated (80%) by A. butzleri; our PFGE findings excluded primary contamination of milk, whereas teats and milking machine surfaces could be sources of Arcobacter milk contamination. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.

Serraino A.,University of Bologna | Giacometti F.,University of Bologna | Daminelli P.,Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna | Losio M.N.,Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna | And 3 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Serraino A.,University of Bologna | Arrigoni N.,Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna | Ostanello F.,University of Bologna | Ricchi M.,Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval. = 18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate control measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of infection in dairy herds and milk contamination. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

Giacometti F.,University of Bologna | Serraino A.,University of Bologna | Peli A.,University of Bologna | Fustini M.,University of Bologna | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

Prevalence data were collected from official microbiological records monitoring four selected foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni) in raw milk sold by self-service vending machines in seven Italian regions (60,907 samples from 1,239 vending machines) from 2008 to 2011. Data from samples analyzed by both culture-based and real-time PCR methods were collected in one region. One hundred raw milk consumers in four regions were interviewed while purchasing raw milk from vending machines. One hundred seventy-eight of 60,907 samples were positive for one of the four foodborne pathogens investigated: 18 samples were positive for Salmonella, 83 for L. monocytogenes, 24 for E. Coli O157:H7, and 53 for C. jejuni in the seven regions investigated. No significant differences in prevalence were found among regions, but a significant increase in C. jejuni prevalence was observed over the years of the study. A comparison of the two analysis methods revealed that real-time PCR was 2.71 to 9.40 times more sensitive than the culturebased method. Data on consumer habits revealed that some behaviors may enhance the risk of infection linked to raw milk consumption: 37% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption, 93% never used an insulated bag to transport raw milk home, and raw milk was consumed by children younger than 5 years of age. These results emphasize that end-product controls alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate level of consumer protection. The beta distribution of positive samples in this study and the data on raw milk consumer habits will be useful for the development of a national quantitative risk assessment of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. Coli O157, and C. jejuni infection associated with raw milk consumption.

Serraino A.,University of Bologna | Bardasi L.,Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna | Riu R.,University of Bologna | Pizzamiglio V.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to establish whether the visual cleanliness of cattle slaughtered was correlated to hide and carcass contamination as indicated by aerobic colony count (ACC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EC) and Escherichia coli count (ECC). Cattle in a slaughterhouse were visually inspected and assigned to a category from 1 (very clean) to 5 (very dirty) based on cleanliness. Fifteen animals for each category were randomly selected, hide and carcass sampled and analyzed for ACC, EC and ECC. Results showed that increasing dirt on cattle was associated with higher ACC, EC and ECC on hide and carcasses. Carcass ACC and ECC belonging to animals classified in cleanliness categories 3, 4 or 5 have a higher probability of exceeding the limits set by the Reg. EU 2073/2005. The study supports the conclusion that the pre-slaughter visual evaluation of animal cleanliness and application of corrective actions can be an effective aid to reduce carcass contamination. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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