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de Girolamo L.,Orthopaedic Biotechnologies Laboratory | Stanco D.,Orthopaedic Biotechnologies Laboratory | Galliera E.,Orthopaedic Biotechnologies Laboratory | Galliera E.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has proven to be effective in the modulation of bone and cartilage tissue functional responsiveness, but its effect on tendon tissue and tendon cells (TCs) is still underinvestigated. PEMF treatment (1.5 mT, 75 Hz) was assessed on primary TCs, harvested from semitendinosus and gracilis tendons of eight patients, under different experimental conditions (4, 8, 12 h). Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted to identify the possible effect of PEMF on tendon-specific gene transcription (scleraxis, SCX and type I collagen, COL1A1); the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also assessed. Our findings show that PEMF exposure is not cytotoxic and is able to stimulate TCs' proliferation. The increase of SCX and COL1A1 in PEMF-treated cells was positively correlated to the treatment length. The release of anti-inflammatory cytokines in TCs treated with PEMF for 8 and 12 h was significantly higher in comparison with untreated cells, while the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was not affected. A dramatically higher increase of VEGF-A mRNA transcription and of its related protein was observed after PEMF exposure. Our data demonstrated that PEMF positively influence, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation, tendon-specific marker expression, and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factor in a healthy human TCs culture model. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

De Paschale M.,Microbiology Unit | Ceriani C.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Cerulli T.,Microbiology Unit | Cagnin D.,Microbiology Unit | And 9 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health

Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rubella virus infections are among the most serious of those contracted during pregnancy in terms of foetal consequences. Toxoplasma, HCMV and rubella antibody screening is unusual in Africa, and there are few published data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of these markers among pregnant women in northern Benin on the occasion of routine syphilis screening. Methods: Toxoplasma, HCMV and rubella IgG and IgM antibodies were determined in the serum of 283 women attending Saint Jean de Dieu de Tanguiéta hospital, using an enzyme immunoassay, and IgM were confirmed using an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). In the case of IgM positivity, the avidity of anti-HCMV and anti-Toxoplasma IgG was measured. Total anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were determined using an enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by immunoblotting. In the case of positivity, the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test was used. Results: The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma, anti-HCMV, anti-rubella IgG and total anti-Treponema antibodies was, respectively, 30.0%, 100%, 94% and 2.5%. The VDRL test was positive in 62.5% of the anti-Treponema-positive samples. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma, anti-HCMV and anti-rubella IgM was, respectively, 0.4%, 1.4% and 0%. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age class or trimester of pregnancy. Anti-Toxoplasma and anti-HCMV IgG avidity was always high. Conclusions: The prevalence of HCMV and rubella antibodies is high in northern Benin, whereas that of Toxoplasma antibodies is lower. As nearly two-thirds of the pregnant women were anti-Toxoplasma seronegative, antibody screening should be introduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Xu J.,China Institute of Sport Science | Lombardi G.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Jiao W.,Beijing Sport University | Banfi G.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Banfi G.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University
Sports Medicine

Background: Osteoporosis and postmenopausal bone loss pose a huge social and economic burden worldwide. Regular exercise and physical activity are effective interventions for maximizing or maintaining peak bone mass and preventing bone loss in the elderly; however, most recommendations are addressed to the general public and lack specific indications for girls and women, the segment of the population most at risk for developing osteoporosis. Objective: The aim of this overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was to summarize current evidence for the effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on bone status in girls and women, and to explore whether specific exercise programs exist for improving or maintaining bone mass or bone strength in females. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2009, updated to 22 June 2015, using the following groups of search terms: (i) ‘physical activity’ and ‘exercise’; and (ii) ‘bone’, ‘bone health’, ‘bone strength’, ‘bone structure’, ‘bone metabolism’, ‘bone turnover’, and ‘bone biomarkers’. Searches and screening were limited to systematic reviews or meta-analyses of studies in females and published in English. Our final analysis included 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Results: Combined-impact exercise protocols (impact exercise with resistance training) are the best choice to preserve/improve bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women. Peak bone mass in young girls can be improved with short bouts of school-based high-impact plyometric exercise programs. Whole-body vibration exercises have no beneficial effects on bone in postmenopausal or elderly women. Conclusions and Implications: Lifelong exercise, specific for age, is an effective way to sustain bone health in girls and women. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

Grasso D.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Corsetti R.,Cannondale | Lanteri P.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Di Bernardo C.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | And 5 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

Muscle traction and bone metabolism are functionally linked and co-regulated by a series of factors. Although a role for steroid hormones was hypothesized, a clear definition of the bone-muscle interconnection still lacks. To investigate this relationship, we studied bone metabolism, muscle activity, and salivary steroid hormones profile in relation with the physical effort across a cycling stage race, a model of effort in absence of load. Nine pro-cyclists were recruited; body weight and power output/energy expenditure were recorded. Diet was kept constant. Saliva was collected at days -1, 4, 8, 12, 14, 19, and 23; blood and urine were collected at days -1, 12, and 23. Salivary steroid hormones [cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and estradiol], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, plasma sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous were measured. Cortisol remained constant, testosterone decreased at day 4, and estradiol and DHEA firstly increased and then returned to basal levels. Hormone concentrations were not correlated with plasma volume shifts. LDH, CK, AST, sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous increased. DHEA and estradiol correlated with the physical effort and the bone-muscular markers. A relationship between muscle activity, in absence of load, and bone resorption emerged under a putative regulation by DHEA and estradiol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Colombini A.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Cauci S.,University of Udine | Lombardi G.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Lanteri P.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The vitamin D endocrine system is involved in bony and cartilaginous metabolisms and alterations in the homeostasis of this system could be associated to pathological conditions of cartilaginous tissue. In this context, the presence of polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), in association with the susceptibility to common osteochondral diseases, was largely investigated. The aim of this review was to summarize data present in literature, analyzing the association of the VDR polymorphisms, vitamin D status and knee cartilage and intervertebral disc pathologies, trying to suggest links between the different specific pathologies analyzed. Concerning the association between VDR polymorphisms and cartilaginous tissue diseases, we found controversial reports. However, the great majority of papers reported an association with lumbar disc degeneration, whereas about half of the studies found an association with osteoarthritis. A further association between VDR polymorphisms (in linkage disequilibrium) and the presence of specific characteristics of these diseases, in particular the formation of osteophytes, was evidenced. Finally, the influence of vitamin D status on these pathologies was evaluated, trying to evidence the relation between the presence of particular genetic variants in the VDR and vitamin D levels or to show whether a particular vitamin D status could predispose to the development or progression of such diseases, however, no significant associations were found. In the future, given the role of vitamin D system in the cartilaginous tissue metabolism, it could be interesting to perform functional and tissue specific studies to analyze the interplay between the different VDR variants and its ligand. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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