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Le Grazie di Ancona, Italy

Spreghini E.,Marche Polytechnic University | Orlando F.,Experimental Animal Models for Aging Units | Tavanti A.,University of Pisa | Senesi S.,University of Pisa | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin against Candida parapsilosis complex isolates. Methods: In vitro activities of all three echinocandins were assessed against C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 4), Candida orthopsilosis (n = 4) and Candida metapsilosis (n = 3) using broth microdilution susceptibility testing, minimum fungicidal concentration determination and a killing-curve assay, in the absence and in the presence of 50% human serum. Then, the activities of all drugs were investigated in an immunocompromised murine model of systemic candidiasis. Animals were infected with six isolates (two for each species) and treated with the echinocandins administered at 0.25, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day for six consecutive days. Fungal burdens were assessed in kidney tissues on day 7 post-infection. Results: Geometric mean MICs of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin for C. parapsilosis sensu lato were, respectively, 0.09, 0.14 and 0.20 mg/L without serum, and 0.70, 3.92 and 5.84 mg/L with serum. The fungicidal activity of all three echinocandins was variable; however, the addition of serum reduced the fungicidal effects against these species. In vivo studies showed that caspofungin at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the kidney burdens with respect to the controls for all isolates, while micafungin was active at 5 and/or 10 mg/kg/day only against C. metapsilosis. Conclusions: Our susceptibility testing showed that caspofungin was the most active echinocandin against all three species. Also, caspofungin resulted in significant therapeutic effects for treatments of experimental systemic infections due to the three species, while micafungin was effective only against C. metapsilosis. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Spreghini E.,Marche Polytechnic University | Orlando F.,Experimental Animal Models for Aging Units | Sanguinetti M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Posteraro B.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo activities of micafungin, caspofungin, and anidulafungin against Candida glabrata. The MICs against 28 clinical isolates showed that the overall susceptibilities to caspofungin and to micafungin were not statistically different in the absence of human serum, whereas the isolates were less susceptible to micafungin than to caspofungin in its presence. Minimum fungicidal concentrations, as well as time-kill experiments, showed that caspofungin was more active than anidulafungin, while micafungin was superior to either caspofungin or anidulafungin without serum; its addition rendered caspofungin and micafungin equally effective. A murine model of systemic candidiasis against a C. glabratasusceptible isolate was performed to study the effects of all three echinocandins, and kidney burden counts showed that caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin were active starting from 0.25, 1, and 5 mg/kg of body weight/day, respectively. Two echinocandin-resistant strains of C. glabrata were selected: C. glabrata 30, a laboratory strain harboring the mutation Fks2p- P667T, and C. glabrata 51, a clinical isolate harboring the mutation Fks2p-D666G. Micafungin activity was shown to be as effective as or more effective than that of caspofungin or anidulafungin in terms of MICs. In vivo studies against these resistant strains showed that micafungin was active starting from 1 mg/kg/day, while caspofungin was effective only when administrated at higher doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/day. Although a trend toward colony reduction was observed with the highest doses of anidulafungin, a significant statistical difference was never reached. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Spreghini E.,Marche Polytechnic University | Orlando F.,Experimental Animal Models for Aging Units | Giannini D.,Marche Polytechnic University | Barchiesi F.,Marche Polytechnic University
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Objectives: We analysed the in vitro and in vivo effects of posaconazole and amphotericin B against three clinical isolates of zygomycetes: Lichtheimia corymbifera, F1; and Rhizopus oryzae, F5 and F6. Methods: In vitro activities of both drugs were assessed by determining MICs, minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) and fungal damage measured by the XTT assay against either the spores or the hyphal forms. Additionally, the survival curves of neutropenic mice systemically infected with the zygomycete isolates were used as the marker of antifungal response to amphotericin B (1 mg/kg/day) or posaconazole (2.5, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day). Results: In terms of MICs, posaconazole proved to be active against the three isolates (MICs ranging from 0.125 to 1.0 mg/L). The median posaconazole MFCs were 0.25, 0.5 and >16 mg/L for F1, F5 and F6, respectively. The XTT assay showed that posaconazole was active against spores of all three isolates, but only partially effective against the hyphae. The survival studies showed that amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day and posaconazole at 10 mg/kg/day prolonged the survival of the animals infected with L. corymbifera F1. In mice infected with R. oryzae F5, only posaconazole at 50 mg/kg/day significantly prolonged survival, whereas amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day was the only regimen active against R. oryzae F6. Conclusions: Our findings showed that posaconazole could be useful in the treatment of zygomycosis. Also, we report that an isolate of R. oryzae with low MFC responded to posaconazole, while another isolate with high MFC did not. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Pozzi V.,Marche Polytechnic University | Sartini D.,Marche Polytechnic University | Morganti S.,Marche Polytechnic University | Giuliante R.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 10 more authors.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer. Despite progress in the treatment of OSCC, overall survival has not improved substantially in the last three decades. Therefore, identification of reliable biomarkers becomes essential to develop effective anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we focused on the enzyme Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), which plays a fundamental role in the biotransformation of many xenobiotics. Although several tumors have been associated with abnormal NNMT expression, its role in cancer cell metabolism remains largely unknown. In this report, 7 human oral cancer cell lines were examined for NNMT expression by Real-Time PCR, Western blot and HPLC-based catalytic assay. Subsequently, we evaluated the in vitro effect of shRNA-mediated silencing of NNMT on cell proliferation. In vivo tumorigenicity of oral cancer cells with stable knockdown of NNMT was assayed by using xenograft models. High expression levels of NNMT were found in PE/CA PJ-15 cells, in keeping with the results of Western blot and catalytic activity assay. PE/CA PJ-15 cell line was stably transfected with shRNA plasmids against NNMT and analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and soft agar Assays. Transfected and control cells were injected into athymic mice in order to evaluate the effect of NNMT silencing on tumor growth. NNMT downregulation resulted in decreased cell proliferation and colony formation ability on soft agar. In athymic mice, NNMT silencing induced a marked reduction in tumour volume. Our results show that the downregulation of NNMT expression in human oral carcinoma cells significantly inhibits cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. All these experimental data seem to suggest that NNMT plays a critical role in the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of oral cancer cells, and its inhibition could represent a potential molecular approach to the treatment of oral carcinoma. © 2013 Pozzi et al. Source

Ghiselli R.,Marche Polytechnic University | Lucarini G.,Marche Polytechnic University | Filosa A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Minardi D.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Surgical Research

Background: Sacral neuromodulation is becoming established as a valid treatment option for patients with anorectal disorders. Nevertheless, despite its efficacy, little is known regarding its mechanism of action. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether chronic sacral neuromodulation is able to influence the expression of nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) in the anorectum of rats. Materials and methods: Twenty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; normal control rats (n = 6); sham treatment (n =10) and group in whom, electrical sacral neuromodulation was performed (n = 10). Bilateral electrode wires were placed in the S1 and electrical stimulation was performed for 14 d. At the end of the procedures the rats were sacrificed, proctectomy was performed, and anorectal specimens were sent to the laboratory for immunostaining with n-NOS and i-NOS. Results: In the anal and rectal specimens, n-NOS and i-NOS expression was significantly increased in epithelial and muscle cells after neuromodulation of the anus and rectum of the animals. Conclusion: Our results showed that this model can be applied in further experimental studies to better understand the mechanism of action of sacral neuromodulation in anorectal disorders. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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