Experiment and Research Institute

Seoul, South Korea

Experiment and Research Institute

Seoul, South Korea
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Lohumi S.,Chungnam National University | Joshi R.,Chungnam National University | Kandpal L.M.,Chungnam National University | Lee H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2017

As adulteration of foodstuffs with Sudan dye, especially paprika- and chilli-containing products, has been reported with some frequency, this issue has become one focal point for addressing food safety. FTIR spectroscopy has been used extensively as an analytical method for quality control and safety determination for food products. Thus, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of Sudan dye in paprika powder was investigated in this study. A net analyte signal (NAS)-based methodology, named HLA/GO (hybrid linear analysis in the literature), was applied to FTIR spectral data to predict Sudan dye concentration. The calibration and validation sets were designed to evaluate the performance of the multivariate method. The obtained results had a high determination coefficient (R2) of 0.98 and low root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.026% for the calibration set, and an R2 of 0.97 and RMSE of 0.05% for the validation set. The model was further validated using a second validation set and through the figures of merit, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limits of detection and quantification. The proposed technique of FTIR combined with HLA/GO is rapid, simple and low cost, making this approach advantageous when compared with the main alternative methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Shukla S.,Yeungnam University | Cho H.,Experiment and Research Institute | Kwon O.J.,Gyeongbuk Institute for Regional Program Evaluation | Chung S.H.,Korea University | Kim M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Nowadays, viruses of foodborne origin such as norovirus and hepatitis A are considered major causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness with widespread distribution worldwide. A number of foodborne outbreaks associated with food products of animal and non-animal origins, which often involve multiple cases of variety of food streams, have been reported. Although several viruses, including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus, and other enteroviruses, significantly contribute to incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, systematic information on the role of food in transmitting such viruses is limited. Most of the outbreak cases caused by infected food handlers were the source of 53% of total outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and hygiene measures to reduce the frequency of foodborne virus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production site of food products. Pivotal strategies, such as proper investigation, surveillance, and reports on foodborne viral illnesses, are needed in order to develop more accurate measures to detect the presence and pathogenesis of viral infection with detailed descriptions. Moreover, molecular epidemiology and surveillance of food samples may help analysis of public health hazards associated with exposure to foodborne viruses. In this present review, we discuss different aspects of foodborne viral contamination and its impact on human health. This review also aims to improve understanding of foodborne viral infections as major causes of human illness as well as provide descriptions of their control and prevention strategies and rapid detection by advanced molecular techniques. Further, a brief description of methods available for the detection of viruses in food and related matrices is provided. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Mo C.,National Institute of Development Administration | Kim G.,National Institute of Development Administration | Kim M.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lim J.,National Institute of Development Administration | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Non-destructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting the worms were investigated using the one-way ANOVA and correlation analyses. RESULTS: The worm detection imaging algorithms, RSI-I(492-626)/492, provided a prediction accuracy of 99.0%. The fluorescence HSI techniques indicated that the spectral images with a pixel size of 1×1mm had the best classification accuracy for worms. CONCLUSION: The overall results demonstrate that fluorescence HSI techniques have the potential to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. In the future, we will focus on developing a multi-spectral imaging system to detect foreign substances such as worms, slugs and earthworms on fresh-cut lettuce. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cho H.,Experiment and Research Institute | Cho H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Baek I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Oh M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

Bacterial biofilm formed by pathogens on fresh produce surfaces is a food safety concern because the complex extracellular matrix in the biofilm structure reduces the reduction and removal efficacies of washing and sanitizing processes such as chemical or irradiation treatments. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive method to identify pathogenic biofilm on produce surfaces is needed to ensure safe consumption of fresh, raw produce. This research aimed to evaluate the feasibility of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging for detecting Escherichia.coli (ATCC 25922) biofilms on baby spinach leaf surfaces. Samples of baby spinach leaves were immersed and inoculated with five different levels (from 2.6x104 to 2.6x108 CFU/mL) of E.coli and stored at 4°C for 24 h and 48 h to induce biofilm formation. Following the two treatment days, individual leaves were gently washed to remove excess liquid inoculums from the leaf surfaces and imaged with a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system equipped with UV-A (365 nm) and violet (405 nm) excitation sources to evaluate a spectral-image-based method for biofilm detection. The imaging results with the UV-A excitation showed that leaves even at early stages of biofilm formations could be differentiated from the control leaf surfaces. This preliminary investigation demonstrated the potential of fluorescence imaging techniques for detection of biofilms on leafy green surfaces. © 2017 SPIE.


Shim J.-M.,Chungnam National University | Seo D.-W.,Chungnam National University | Seo S.,Chungnam National University | Kim J.-J.,Yeungnam University | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2010

Due to the large amount of beef imported from the USA to Korea, Korean consumers have become increasingly interested in the country of origin since it can affect market prices. Previously, Bos indicus and Bos taurus-specific markers were developed for the purpose of cattle breed identification, specifically discrimination of Australian beef. In this study, six SNP markers derived from Illumina 50K bovine SNP chip data were used for the discrimination between Korean cattle (Hanwoo) and imported beef from USA. PCR-RFLP genotyping methods were also developed, which indicates that these markers can be applied relatively easily compared to other markers. Taking into account a discrimination rate of 55% based on MC1R marker between Hanwoo and imported beef from USA, two additional markers, SNPs 23803 and 34776, were ideal and resulted in probability of identification of 0.942 and probability of misjudgment of 0.03. Therefore, the markers developed in this study can greatly contribute to the correct discrimination between beef from USA and Hanwoo beef.


Mo C.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kim G.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lim J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kim M.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Rapid visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging methods, employing both a single waveband algorithm and multi-spectral algorithms, were developed in order to discrimination between sound and discolored lettuce. Reflectance spectra for sound and discolored lettuce surfaces were extracted from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between discolored and sound lettuce surfaces were determined using one-way analysis of variance. Multi-spectral imaging algorithms developed using ratio and subtraction functions resulted in enhanced classification accuracy of above 99.9% for discolored and sound areas on both adaxial and abaxial lettuce surfaces. Ratio imaging (RI) and subtraction imaging (SI) algorithms at wavelengths of 552/701 nm and 557-701 nm, respectively, exhibited better classification performances compared to results obtained for all possible two-waveband combinations. These results suggest that hyperspectral reflectance imaging techniques can potentially be used to discriminate between discolored and sound fresh-cut lettuce. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Oh M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Oh M.,Konkuk University | Lee H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cho H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting. © 2016 SPIE.


Everard C.D.,University College Dublin | Kim M.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cho H.,Experiment and Research Institute | O'Donnell C.P.,University College Dublin
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization | Year: 2016

Food safety in the production of fresh produce for human consumption is a worldwide issue and needs to be addressed to decrease foodborne illnesses and resulting costs. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis techniques for detection of fecal contaminates on spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea) was evaluated. Violet fluorescence excitation was provided at 405 nm and light emission was recorded from 464 to 800 nm. Partial least square discriminant analysis and wavelength ratio methods were compared for detection accuracy for fecal contamination. Fluorescence emission profiles of spinach leaves were monitored over a 27 days storage period; peak emission blue-shifts were observed over the storage period accompanying a color change from green to green–yellow–brown hue. The PLSDA model developed correctly detected fecal contamination on 100 % of relatively fresh green spinach leaves used in this investigation, which also had soil contamination. The PLSDA model had 19 % false positives for non-fresh post storage leaves. A wavelength ratio technique using four wavebands (680, 688, 703 and 723 nm) was successful in identifying 100 % of fecal contaminates on both fresh and non-fresh leaves. An on-line fluorescence imaging inspection system for fecal contaminant detection has potential to allow fresh produce producers to reduce foodborne illnesses and prevent against the associated economic losses. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Shukla S.,Yeungnam University | Lee G.,Yeungnam University | Song X.,Yeungnam University | Park J.H.,Yeungnam University | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2016

This study aimed to optimize the applicability of an immunoliposome-based immunomagnetic concentration and separation assay to facilitate rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). To determine the detection limit, specificity, and pre-enrichment incubation time (0, 4, 6, and 8 h), assay tests were performed with different cell numbers of C. sakazakii (2 × 100 and 2 × 101 CFU/ml) inoculated in 10 g of PIF. The assay was able to detect as few as 2 cells of C. sakazakii/10 g of PIF sample after 6 h of pre-enrichment incubation with an assay time of 2 h 30 min. The assay was assessed for cross-reactivity with other bacterial strains and exhibited strong specificity to C. sakazakii. Moreover, the assay method was applied to the detection of C. sakazakii in PIF without pre-enrichment steps, and the results were compared with INC-ELISA and RT-PCR. The developed method was able to detect C. sakazakii in spiked PIF without pre-enrichment, whereas INC-ELISA failed to detect C. sakazakii. In addition, when compared with the results obtained with RT-PCR, our developed assay required lesser detection time. The developed assay was also not susceptible to any effect of the food matrix or background contaminant microflora. © The Author(s) 2016.


PubMed | Yeungnam University, Experiment and Research Institute and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

This study aimed to optimize the applicability of an immunoliposome-based immunomagnetic concentration and separation assay to facilitate rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). To determine the detection limit, specificity, and pre-enrichment incubation time (0, 4, 6, and 8h), assay tests were performed with different cell numbers of C. sakazakii (210

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