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Charng W.-L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Charng W.-L.,Baylor Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics | Karaca E.,Baylor College of Medicine | Karaca E.,Baylor Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics | And 37 more authors.
BMC Medical Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: Neurodevelopment is orchestrated by a wide range of genes, and the genetic causes of neurodevelopmental disorders are thus heterogeneous. We applied whole exome sequencing (WES) for molecular diagnosis and in silico analysis to identify novel disease gene candidates in a cohort from Saudi Arabia with primarily Mendelian neurologic diseases. Methods: We performed WES in 31 mostly consanguineous Arab families and analyzed both single nucleotide and copy number variants (CNVs) from WES data. Interaction/expression network and pathway analyses, as well as paralog studies were utilized to investigate potential pathogenicity and disease association of novel candidate genes. Additional cases for candidate genes were identified through the clinical WES database at Baylor Miraca Genetics Laboratories and GeneMatcher. Results: We found known pathogenic or novel variants in known disease genes with phenotypic expansion in 6 families, disease-associated CNVs in 2 families, and 12 novel disease gene candidates in 11 families, including KIF5B, GRM7, FOXP4, MLLT1, and KDM2B. Overall, a potential molecular diagnosis was provided by variants in known disease genes in 17 families (54.8 %) and by novel candidate disease genes in an additional 11 families, making the potential molecular diagnostic rate ~90 %. Conclusions: Molecular diagnostic rate from WES is improved by exome-predicted CNVs. Novel candidate disease gene discovery is facilitated by paralog studies and through the use of informatics tools and available databases to identify additional evidence for pathogenicity. Trial registration: Not applicable. © 2016 The Author(s).


White J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Beck C.R.,Baylor College of Medicine | Harel T.,Baylor College of Medicine | Posey J.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 35 more authors.
Genome Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Large-scale cohort-based whole exome sequencing of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has identified numerous novel candidate disease genes; however, detailed phenotypic information is often lacking in such studies. De novo mutations in pogo transposable element with zinc finger domain (POGZ) have been identified in six independent and diverse cohorts of individuals with NDDs ranging from autism spectrum disorder to developmental delay. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed on five unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was used to validate variants and segregate mutations with the phenotype in available family members. Results: We identified heterozygous truncating mutations in POGZ in five unrelated individuals, which were confirmed to be de novo or not present in available parental samples. Careful review of the phenotypes revealed shared features that included developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and similar facial characteristics. Variable features included short stature, microcephaly, strabismus and hearing loss. Conclusions: While POGZ has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in large cohort studies, our data suggest that loss of function variants in POGZ lead to an identifiable syndrome of NDD with specific phenotypic traits. This study exemplifies the era of human reverse clinical genomics ushered in by large disease-directed cohort studies; first defining a new syndrome molecularly and, only subsequently, phenotypically. © 2015 White et al.


Burrage L.C.,Baylor College of Medicine | Charng W.-L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Eldomery M.K.,Baylor College of Medicine | Willer J.R.,Duke University | And 30 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5′ end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1st coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6∗) and c.35-38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs∗4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5′ end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5′ to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics.

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