Exercise Physiology Laboratory

Nikea, Greece

Exercise Physiology Laboratory

Nikea, Greece

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Nikolaidis P.T.,Hellenic Army Academy | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Current Women's Health Reviews | Year: 2016

The aim of the present review was to summarize research methods, benefits, recommendations, current trends and determinants of physical activity (PA) with a focus on women. In the research methods section, models, difficulties of measurements and assessment methods of PA emphasizing questionnaires were included. The beneficial role of PA was presented separately for the various forms of PA (e.g. leisure, school physical education). The recommendations section presented the last guidelines provided by international organizations for optimal PA levels. The section on current trends is aimed to examine to what extent the abovementioned guidelines were met by various populations during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Lastly, the determinants of PA were presented: school, educational background, periodicity, tracking during childhood and from childhood to adolescence, structured PA programs, social support and companion, facilities and equipment, socio-economic status, promotion and interventions, environment and neighbourhood, ethnicity and family and genetics. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Dellal A.,Medical excellence Center | Dellal A.,Tunisian research laboratory Sport Performance Optimisation | Torres-Luque G.,University of Jaén | Ingebrigtsen J.,University of Nordland
Science and Sports | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric and physiological factors that influence the acceleration (0-10. m) and maximum speed phases (10-20. m) of a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. Equipment and methods: Thirty-six soccer players were tested for height, body mass, body fat percentage, sit-and-reach test, squat and countermovement jump, Wingate test, maximal aerobic running speed, 20. m sprint time (with 0-10. m and 10-20. m splits) and a 10. ×. 20. m RSA test. Results: The comparison between groups with different levels of RSA revealed that players with higher RSA had better scores in physical fitness than their counterparts with lower RSA (maximal aerobic speed +1.1km.h-1, +7.1%; squat jump +4.5cm, +14.2%; mean power in the Wingate test +0.4W.kg-1, +4.6%; 20m sprint -0.13s, -4.1%; P<0.05). The split 0-10m and 10-20m of the 20m sprint test had similar correlations with the mean time of the RSA test (0.57≤r≤0.59, P<0.001), but they had phase-dependent correlations with the mean time in the acceleration phase (r=0.63, P<0.001, vs. r=0.32ns) and maximum speed phase of the RSA test (r=0.38, P<0.05, vs. r=0.74, P<0.001). In conclusion, this study showed the existence of different physical fitness components that are related with each phase of RSA, suggesting that an analysis of separate phases of a RSA test can provide additional information for the training design. Therefore, players should focus on the physical fitness components associated with the specific phase in order to improve the performance in a targeted phase of RSA. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Nikolaidis P.T.,Hellenic Army Academy | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Meletakos P.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Tasiopoulos I.,Hellenic Army Academy | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: The repeated sprint ability (RSA) has been studied with protocols using distances longer than 20 m per sprint, whereas basketball players cover on average less than 20-meter distance per sprint during match. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological impact of 10 × 15 m RSA test in straight-line (RSASL) or with change of direction (RSACOD), i.e. 10 × (7.5 + 7.5 m)) in young national level basketball players. Patients and Methods: Young basketball players (n = 11, age 17.1 (1.0) years, body mass 76 (6) kg, height 184 (4) cm, body mass index 22.6 (1.8) kgm-2, sport experience 6.9 (2.7) years, mean (standard deviation)) and a control group consisting of high-school athletes (n = 7, 16.1 (0.7) years, 67 (6) kg, 177 (6) cm, 21.5 (1.0) kgm-2, 7.7 (1.6) years, respectively) performed RSASL and RSACOD on a counterbalanced order. Sprints started every 30 seconds (active recovery) and there was 30 minutes break between RSA protocols; time variables were total time (TT), best time (BT) and fatigue index (FI). Countermovement jump (CMJ) was tested before and after each RSA protocol. Heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored during testing procedures. Results: Compared with RSASL, TT and BT were worst in RSACOD (38.13 vs. 27.52 s and 3.67 vs. 2.66 s, P < 0.001, respectively), whereas FI did not differ (3.8 vs. 3.5%, P = 0.388). A 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA showed main effect of RSA on CMJ (pre-test vs. post-test, increase + 1.8 cm, P = 0.020, η2 = 0.28); there was neither main effect of RSA protocols (RSASL vs. RSACOD +0.7 cm, P = 0.251, η2 = 0.08) nor an interaction between pre-post measurements and RSA protocols (P = 0.578, η2 = 0.02). Compared with RSASL, RSACOD induced higher mean and peak HR responses (175 vs 172 bpm, P < 0.001, and 185 vs 182 bpm, P = 0.002, respectively). No statistical difference was observed between basketball players and control group neither for TT (27.98 vs. 26.80 seconds, + 4.4%, P = 0.149) and BT (2.71 vs. 2.59 seconds, + 4.5%, P = 0.157) in RSASL nor for TT (38.55 vs. 37.47 seconds, + 2.9%, P = 0.169) and BT (3.70 vs. 3.63 seconds, 1.8%, P = 0.414) in RSACOD. Conclusions: In conclusion, RSASL and RSACOD differed for time variables (TT and BT) and HR responses. Despite being non-significant, the trend that adding COD reduced the percentage differences in TT and BT between the two groups highlighted the role of sport specialization. © 2016, Sports Medicine Research Center.

Nikolaidis P.T.,Hellenic Army Academy | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Human Movement | Year: 2014

Purpose. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between player position and physical fitness, with an emphasis on anaerobic power, in female soccer players. Methods. For this purpose, 54 first league female soccer players were recruited. They included goalkeepers (n = 4, age 22.89 ± 4.37 years), defenders (n = 21, 21.92 ± 3.81 years), midfielders (n = 22, 21.71 ± 4.70 years) and attackers (n = 7, 20.43 ± 4.70 years). Participants' anthropometric characteristics were measured and a physical fitness test battery was administered. Results. significant differences were observed in body fat percentage (F3,50= 3.06, p = 0.036, n2= 0.16) with goalkeepers being fatter than defenders (mean difference 6.1%; 95% CI 0.3,11.9). Positional differences were also found in the sit-and-reach test (F3,50= 4.46, p = 0.007, n2= 0.21), in which goalkeepers scored lower than defenders (-11.4 cm; 95% CI-21.4,-1.5) and midfielders (-10.0 cm; 95% CI-19.9, 0). Comparison of fat mass and endomorphy were statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.062, respectively), with goalkeepers showing the highest values; these differences were in the same direction as with body fat percentage. No positional differences were found in the other physical fitness components (aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and muscle strength). Conclusions. Differences among player positions were observed in body composition (highest body fat percentage in goalkeepers) and flexibility (lowest score in goalkeepers). These trends are in agreement with previously published data concerning elite soccer players. These findings might be used as reference data by coaches and trainers to identify talent, select players, and monitor training. © 2014 Human Movement.

Knechtle B.,Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen | Knechtle B.,University of Zürich | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory
PeerJ | Year: 2016

Background. To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015. Methods. Within each sex, participants were grouped in quartiles (i.e., Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) with Q1 being the fastest (i.e., lowest overall time) and Q4 the slowest (i.e., highest overall time). To compare performance among events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running), race time in each event was converted in z score and this value was used for further analysis. Results. A between-within subjects ANOVA showed a large sex × event (p = 0.015, η2 =0.014) and a medium performance group × event interaction (pD0:001, η2 D 0:012). No main effect of event on performance was observed (p-0.174, η2 D0:007). With regard to the sex × event interaction, three female performance groups (i.e., Q2, Q3 and Q4) increased race time from swimming to cycling 1, whereas only one male performance group (Q4) revealed a similar trend. From cycling 1 to cycling 2, the two slower female groups (Q3 and Q4) and the slowest male group (Q4) increased raced time. In women, the fastest group decreased (i.e., improved) race time from swimming to cycling 1 and thereafter, maintained performance, whereas in men, the fastest group decreased race time till cycling 2 and increased it in the running. Conclusion. In summary, women pace differently than men during ;'Ultraman Hawaii' where the fastest women decreased performance on day 1 and could then maintain on day 2 and 3, whereas the fastest men worsened performance on day 1 and 2 but improved on day 3. © 2016 Knechtle and Nikolaidis.

Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Ziv G.,Wingate Institute | Ziv G.,Haifa University | Arnon M.,Wingate Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and physiological attributes of adolescent and adult Greek female volleyball players (n = 61) who were members of the A (the best league for female volleyball players) and B (the second-best league for female volleyball players) Series clubs in Greece and (b) to examine the intraindividual variability among these players in all physical and physiological measurements that were undertaken in the study. The participants were divided into 3 age groups-under 14, 14-18, and over 18 years. They underwent a series of physical (e.g., height, body mass, and percentage of body fat) and physiological (e.g., aerobic profile, flexibility, and vertical jumping ability) tests. Three main findings emerged from the data analysis: (a) differences in physical characteristics and physiological attributes existed between the 3 age groups. For example, fat-free mass was lower in players under the age of 14 years (41.57 ± 6.06 kg) compared with that in players between the ages of 14-18 years (50.24 ± 6.96 kg) and players over the age of 18 years (52.03 ± 3.39 kg). In addition, the relative peak power as measured in the Wingate Anaerobic Test was the highest in the over- 18 group (9.72 ± 0.65 W·kg-1), lower in the 14-18 group (8.95 ± 0.7), and the lowest in the under-14 group (8.32 ± 0.78W·kg-1), (b) large intraindividual variability existed in most physical characteristics and physiological attributes measured in the study, and (c) the intraindividual variability was observed in all the 3 groups. These findings emphasize the need for coaches to examine the intraindividual variability within the players on their teams and to use this information when designing training programs and strength and conditioning programs. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

PubMed | Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Wingate Institute and Haifa University
Type: | Journal: Journal of human kinetics | Year: 2014

(a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players - under 14 years, 14-17, and over 17, playing different positions - goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14-17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer.

PubMed | Institute of Sport National Research Institute, University of Zürich, Exercise Physiology Laboratory and Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo
Type: | Journal: Open access journal of sports medicine | Year: 2016

Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7-48 years old), separated into six age groups (7-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-17, 18-32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF,

PubMed | University of Zürich and Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Chinese journal of physiology | Year: 2016

Pacing is known to influence athletic performance. For the Ironman triathlon program, a positive pacing strategy, i.e., the continuous decrease of speed over time was recommended. By analyzing split times, we assessed the pacing strategies of the top 100 finishers of the cycling part of 13 Ironman races and of the running part of 11 Ironman races taking place in 2014. Furthermore, sex-associated differences in performance and pacing strategies were calculated. We analyzed 7,687 cycling and 11,894 running split times of 1,392 triathletes (1,263 men, 129 women). Changes in speed were assessed using mixedeffects regression analyses. A continuous decrease in speed was observed during cycling in 10/13 races, and during running in 11/11 races. In 6/13 races, women decreased their speed during cycling significantly more than men. The running part showed no significant difference of changes in speed between the sexes. In summary, in the Ironman races evaluated, a positive pacing strategy was adopted in most races. Women were slower than men in 6/13 cycling races, but there was no difference between men and women in the run splits. Women used the same pacing strategy as men.

PubMed | University of Zürich and Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports | Year: 2017

This study examined changes in performance in age-group track runners across years from 1975 to 2015 for 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 5000, 10000m, and marathon and the corresponding sex differences. Athletes were ranked in 5-year age-group intervals from 35-39 to 95-99years. For all races and all years, the eight female and male finalists for each age-group were included. Men were faster than women and this observation was more pronounced in the shorter distances. The younger age-groups were faster than the older age-groups and age exerted the largest effect on speed in 800m and the smallest in marathon. There was a small variation of speed by calendar years. The competition density varied by sex and race distance. Half of participants were from USA, Germany, Australia, and Great Britain, but the participants nationality varied by sex and race distance. In summary, the variation of competitiveness by sex in short race distances might be important for athletes and coaches. Considering the events competitiveness and that athletes are participating in both 100 and 200m or in 200 and 400m, master women should be oriented to 200m and master men should be oriented to 100 and 400m.

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