Exercise Physiology Laboratory

Nikea, Greece

Exercise Physiology Laboratory

Nikea, Greece
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Nikolaidis P.T.,Hellenic Army Academy | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Current Women's Health Reviews | Year: 2016

The aim of the present review was to summarize research methods, benefits, recommendations, current trends and determinants of physical activity (PA) with a focus on women. In the research methods section, models, difficulties of measurements and assessment methods of PA emphasizing questionnaires were included. The beneficial role of PA was presented separately for the various forms of PA (e.g. leisure, school physical education). The recommendations section presented the last guidelines provided by international organizations for optimal PA levels. The section on current trends is aimed to examine to what extent the abovementioned guidelines were met by various populations during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Lastly, the determinants of PA were presented: school, educational background, periodicity, tracking during childhood and from childhood to adolescence, structured PA programs, social support and companion, facilities and equipment, socio-economic status, promotion and interventions, environment and neighbourhood, ethnicity and family and genetics. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.


Chlibkova D.,Brno University of Technology | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Rosemann T.,University of Zürich | Knechtle B.,University of Zürich | Bednar J.,Brno University of Technology
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2017

Purpose: Little information is available on the association of hydration beliefs and behaviors in endurance athletes and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH). The aim of the present study was to determine hydration beliefs and behaviors in endurance athletes. Method: A 100 and 38 recreational athletes [107 mountain bikers (MTBers) and 31 runners] competing in seven different endurance and ultra-endurance races completed pre- and post-race questionnaires, and a subgroup of 113 (82%) participants (82 MTBers and 31 runners) also provided their blood samples. Result: More than half of the participants had some pre-race (59%), mid-race (58%), and post-race (55%) drinking plan. However, the participants simultaneously reported that temperature (66%), thirst (52%), and plan (37%) affected their drinking behavior during the race. More experienced (years of active sport: p = 0.002; number of completed races: p < 0.026) and trained (p = 0.024) athletes with better race performance (p = 0.026) showed a more profound knowledge of EAH, nevertheless, this did not influence their planned hydration, reported fluid intake, or post-race plasma sodium. Thirteen (12%) hyponatremic participants did not differ in their hydration beliefs, race behaviors, or reported fluid intake from those without post-race EAH. Compared to MTBers, runners more often reported knowledge of the volumes of drinks offered at fluid stations (p < 0.001) and information on how much to drink pre-race (p < 0.001), yet this was not associated with having a drinking plan (p > 0.05). MTBers with hydration information planned more than other MTBers (p = 0.004). In comparison with runners, more MTBers reported riding with their own fluids (p < 0.001) and planning to drink at fluid stations (p = 0.003). On the whole, hydration information was positively associated with hydration planning (n = 138) (p = 0.003); nevertheless, the actual reported fluid intake did not differ between the group with and without hydration information, or with and without a pre-race drinking plan (p > 0.05). Conclusion: In summary, hydration beliefs and behaviors in the endurance athletes do not appear to affect the development of asymptomatic EAH. © 2017 Chlíbková, Nikolaidis, Rosemann, Knechtle and Bednář.


Zagatto A.M.,São Paulo State University | Kondric M.,University of Ljubljana | Knechtle B.,Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Sperlich B.,University of Würzburg
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2017

Table tennis is a racket sport characterised by an intermittent movement profile, including short rallies interspersed with short breaks. In contrast to other racket sports, information is lacking regarding the: (i) physiological responses during table tennis matches and training; and (ii) practical recommendations for enhancing aerobic and anaerobic performance in table tennis by improving cardio-metabolic and neuro-muscular fitness, anthropometry and nutritional strategies. Therefore, this review article attempts to narratively provide an overview of the physiology of table tennis by describing the metabolic mechanisms underlying match play and outlining a framework for practical recommendations for improving cardio-metabolic and neuro-muscular fitness, anthropometry as well as nutritional strategies. A second aim was to stimulate future research on table tennis and to point out study limitations in this context. In general, the most important finding is that the rally duration is short at around 3.5s, with a longer rest time of around 8–20s, resulting in an effort-rest ratio ranging from 0.15 to 0.22 in official matches and energetic demands during match relatively low. Future studies should focus on the relationship between energetic demand and table tennis performance with a view to predicting performance in table tennis using physiological parameters. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Knechtle B.,Facharzt FMH fur Allgemeinmedizin | Knechtle B.,University of Zürich
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2017

Demographic and performance data from 197,825 athletes competing in “Engadin Ski Marathon” between 1998 and 2016 were analysed. When all finishers per age group were considered, there was no gender difference in time (2:59:00 in women versus 2:59:09 h:min:s in men; P = 0.914, η2 < 0.001) and the main effect of age group on time was trivial (P < 0.001, η2 = 0.007). When the top 10 finishers per age group were considered, men were faster than women (1:27:32 versus 1:34:19 h:min:s, respectively; P < 0.001, η2 = 0.373), there was a large effect of age group on time (P < 0.001, η2 = 0.590) and the gender difference was larger in the older than in the younger age groups (P < 0.001, η2 = 0.534). The age of peak performance for all finishers by 1-year interval age group was 40.3 and 39.6 years in all women and men, respectively. The top 10 finishers by 1-year interval age group achieved their peak performance in the age of 38.4 and 42.2 years in women and men, respectively. The age of peak performance was older and the age-related performance decline occurred earlier in marathon cross-country skiing, compared to road-based marathon running. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Grunig H.,Institute For Radiologie | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Moon R.E.,Duke University | Knechtle B.,Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen | Knechtle B.,University of Zürich
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2017

Swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is a complication that can occur during exercise with the possibility of misdiagnosis and can quickly become life threatening; however, medical literature infrequently describes SIPE. Therefore, the aim of this review was to analyse all individual cases diagnosed with SIPE as reported in scientific sources, with an emphasis on the diagnostic pathways and the key facts resulting in its diagnosis. Due to a multifactorial and complicated pathophysiology, the diagnosis could be difficult. Based on the actual literature, we try to point out important findings regarding history, conditions, clinical findings, and diagnostic testing helping to confirm the diagnosis of SIPE. Thirty-eight cases from seventeen articles reporting the diagnosis of SIPE were selected. We found remarkable differences in the individual described diagnostic pathways. A total of 100% of the cases suffered from an acute onset of breathing problems, occasionally accompanied by hemoptysis. A total of 73% showed initial hypoxemia. In most of the cases (89%), an initial chest X-Ray or chest CT was available, of which one-third (71%) showed radiological signs of pulmonary edema. The majority of the cases (82%) experienced a rapid resolution of symptoms within 48 h, the diagnostic hallmark of SIPE. Due to a foreseeable increase in participation in swimming competitions and endurance competitions with a swimming component, diagnosis of SIPE will be important, especially for medical teams caring for these athletes. © 2017 Grünig, Nikolaidis, Moon and Knechtle.


Knechtle B.,Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Praxis | Year: 2017

We report the case of a 64-year-old marathon runner with 990 successfully fnished marathons. He was diagnosed and treated as diabetes mellitus type 2. However, there was no reduction of blood glucose concentration under therapy with metformin. After proper diagnosis and therapy with insulin, the runner is back in training to run his 1000th marathon soon. For athletes with diabetes mellitus type 1, it is important to measure the blood glucose concentration before, during and after exercise, and to reduce the dose of insulin individually during a competition such as a marathon run. © 2017 Hogrefe.


We report the case of a 52-year Ironman triathlete who complained of prolonged pain in the left buttock. Therapeutic efforts in the suspected blocked sacroiliac joint were unsuccessful. An MRI of the pelvis then showed a fracture of the left iliac wing. We assume that manipulation of the sacroiliac joint led to the fracture of the iliac wing. © 2017 Hogrefe.


Nikolaidis P.T.,Hellenic Army Academy | Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Human Movement | Year: 2014

Purpose. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between player position and physical fitness, with an emphasis on anaerobic power, in female soccer players. Methods. For this purpose, 54 first league female soccer players were recruited. They included goalkeepers (n = 4, age 22.89 ± 4.37 years), defenders (n = 21, 21.92 ± 3.81 years), midfielders (n = 22, 21.71 ± 4.70 years) and attackers (n = 7, 20.43 ± 4.70 years). Participants' anthropometric characteristics were measured and a physical fitness test battery was administered. Results. significant differences were observed in body fat percentage (F3,50= 3.06, p = 0.036, n2= 0.16) with goalkeepers being fatter than defenders (mean difference 6.1%; 95% CI 0.3,11.9). Positional differences were also found in the sit-and-reach test (F3,50= 4.46, p = 0.007, n2= 0.21), in which goalkeepers scored lower than defenders (-11.4 cm; 95% CI-21.4,-1.5) and midfielders (-10.0 cm; 95% CI-19.9, 0). Comparison of fat mass and endomorphy were statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.062, respectively), with goalkeepers showing the highest values; these differences were in the same direction as with body fat percentage. No positional differences were found in the other physical fitness components (aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and muscle strength). Conclusions. Differences among player positions were observed in body composition (highest body fat percentage in goalkeepers) and flexibility (lowest score in goalkeepers). These trends are in agreement with previously published data concerning elite soccer players. These findings might be used as reference data by coaches and trainers to identify talent, select players, and monitor training. © 2014 Human Movement.


Nikolaidis P.T.,Exercise Physiology Laboratory | Ziv G.,Wingate Institute | Ziv G.,Haifa University | Arnon M.,Wingate Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and physiological attributes of adolescent and adult Greek female volleyball players (n = 61) who were members of the A (the best league for female volleyball players) and B (the second-best league for female volleyball players) Series clubs in Greece and (b) to examine the intraindividual variability among these players in all physical and physiological measurements that were undertaken in the study. The participants were divided into 3 age groups-under 14, 14-18, and over 18 years. They underwent a series of physical (e.g., height, body mass, and percentage of body fat) and physiological (e.g., aerobic profile, flexibility, and vertical jumping ability) tests. Three main findings emerged from the data analysis: (a) differences in physical characteristics and physiological attributes existed between the 3 age groups. For example, fat-free mass was lower in players under the age of 14 years (41.57 ± 6.06 kg) compared with that in players between the ages of 14-18 years (50.24 ± 6.96 kg) and players over the age of 18 years (52.03 ± 3.39 kg). In addition, the relative peak power as measured in the Wingate Anaerobic Test was the highest in the over- 18 group (9.72 ± 0.65 W·kg-1), lower in the 14-18 group (8.95 ± 0.7), and the lowest in the under-14 group (8.32 ± 0.78W·kg-1), (b) large intraindividual variability existed in most physical characteristics and physiological attributes measured in the study, and (c) the intraindividual variability was observed in all the 3 groups. These findings emphasize the need for coaches to examine the intraindividual variability within the players on their teams and to use this information when designing training programs and strength and conditioning programs. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


PubMed | University of Zürich and Exercise Physiology Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports | Year: 2017

This study examined changes in performance in age-group track runners across years from 1975 to 2015 for 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 5000, 10000m, and marathon and the corresponding sex differences. Athletes were ranked in 5-year age-group intervals from 35-39 to 95-99years. For all races and all years, the eight female and male finalists for each age-group were included. Men were faster than women and this observation was more pronounced in the shorter distances. The younger age-groups were faster than the older age-groups and age exerted the largest effect on speed in 800m and the smallest in marathon. There was a small variation of speed by calendar years. The competition density varied by sex and race distance. Half of participants were from USA, Germany, Australia, and Great Britain, but the participants nationality varied by sex and race distance. In summary, the variation of competitiveness by sex in short race distances might be important for athletes and coaches. Considering the events competitiveness and that athletes are participating in both 100 and 200m or in 200 and 400m, master women should be oriented to 200m and master men should be oriented to 100 and 400m.

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