Exercise Metabolism Research Group


Exercise Metabolism Research Group

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Josse A.R.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group | Tarnopolsky M.A.,McMaster University | Phillips S.M.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and,2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P, 0.05) and fat (P, 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P, 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P, 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P, 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P, 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P, 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P, 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

PubMed | McMaster University, University of Birmingham and Exercise Metabolism Research Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Higher dietary energy as protein during weight loss results in a greater loss of fat mass and retention of muscle mass; however, the impact of protein quality on the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and lipolysis, processes that are important in the maintenance of muscle and loss of fat, respectively, are unknown.We aimed to determine how the consumption of different sources of proteins (soy or whey) during a controlled short-term (14-d) hypoenergetic diet affected MPS and lipolysis.Men (n = 19) and women (n = 21) (age 35-65 y; body mass index 28-50 kg/m(2)) completed a 14-d controlled hypoenergetic diet (-750 kcal/d). Participants were randomly assigned, double blind, to receive twice-daily supplements of isolated whey (27 g/supplement) or soy (26 g/supplement), providing a total protein intake of 1.3 0.1 g/(kg d), or isoenergetic carbohydrate (25 g maltodextrin/supplement) resulting in a total protein intake of 0.7 0.1 g/(kg d). Before and after the dietary intervention, primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(2)H5]-glycerol were used to measure postabsorptive and postprandial rates of MPS and lipolysis.Preintervention, MPS was stimulated more (P < 0.05) with ingestion of whey than with soy or carbohydrate. Postintervention, postabsorptive MPS decreased similarly in all groups (all P < 0.05). Postprandial MPS was reduced by 9 1% in the whey group, which was less (P < 0.05) than the reduction in soy and carbohydrate groups (28 5% and 31 5%, respectively; both P < 0.05) after the intervention. Lipolysis was suppressed during the postprandial period (P < 0.05), but more so with ingestion of carbohydrate (P < 0.05) than soy or whey.We conclude that whey protein supplementation attenuated the decline in postprandial rates of MPS after weight loss, which may be of importance in the preservation of lean mass during longer-term weight loss interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530646.

Burd N.A.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group | Holwerda A.M.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group | Selby K.C.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group | West D.W.D.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

We aimed to determine if any mechanistic differences exist between a single set (1SET) and multiple sets (i.e. 3 sets; 3SET) of resistance exercise by utilizing a primed constant infusion of [ring-13C6]phenylalanine to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and Western blot analysis to examine anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Eight resistance-trained men (24 ± 5 years, BMI = 25 ± 4 kg m-2) were randomly assigned to perform unilateral leg extension exercise at 70% concentric one repetition maximum (1RM) until volitional fatigue for 1SET or 3SET. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken in the fasted state (Fast) and fed state (Fed; 20 g of whey protein isolate) at rest, 5 h Fed, 24 h Fast and 29 h Fed post-exercise. Fed-state MPS was transiently elevated above rest at 5 h for 1SET (2.3-fold) and returned to resting levels by 29 h post-exercise. However, the exercise induced increase in MPS following 3SET was superior in amplitude and duration as compared to 1SET at both 5 h (3.1-fold above rest) and 29 h post-exercise (2.3-fold above rest). Phosphorylation of 70 kDa S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) demonstrated a coordinated increase with MPS at 5 h and 29 h post-exercise such that the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation was related to the MPS response (r= 0.338, P= 0.033). Phosphorylation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p90RSK) and ribosomal protein S6 (rps6) was similar for 1SET and 3SET at 24 h Fast and 29 h Fed, respectively. However, 3SET induced a greater activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2Be{open} (eIF2Be{open}) and rpS6 at 5 h Fed. These data suggest that 3SET of resistance exercise is more anabolic than 1SET and may lead to greater increases in myofibrillar protein accretion over time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Physiological Society.

Davidsen P.K.,Copenhagen University | Davidsen P.K.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Gallagher I.J.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Hartman J.W.,Exercise Metabolism Research Group | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore determined the expression level of 21 abundant miRNAs to determine whether variation in these miRNAs was able to explain the variation in RT-induced gains in muscle mass. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from the top and bottom ∼20% of responders from 56 young men who undertook a 5 day/wk RT program for 12 wk. Training-induced muscle mass gain was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fiber size was evaluated by histochemistry. The expression level of each miRNA was quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR, with the analysis carried out in a blinded manner. Gene ontology and target gene profiling were used to predict the potential biological implications. Of the 21 mature miRNAs examined, 17 were stable during RT in both groups. However, miR-378, miR-29a, miR-26a, and miR-451 were differentially expressed between low and high responders. miR-378, miR-29a, and miR-26a were downregulated in low responders and unchanged in high responders, while miR-451 was upregulated only in low responders. Interestingly, the training-induced change in miR-378 abundance was positively correlated with muscle mass gains in vivo. Gene ontology analysis of the target gene list of miR-378, miR-29a, miR-26a, and miR-451, from the weighted cumulative context ranking methodology, indicated that miRNA changes in the low responders may be compensatory, reflecting a failure to "activate" growth and remodeling genes. We report, for the first time, that RT-induced hypertrophy in human skeletal muscle is associated with selected changes in miRNA abundance. Our analysis indicates that miRNAs may play a role in the phenotypic change and pronounced intergroup variation in the RT response. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

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