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Nova Petrópolis, Brazil

Amable P.R.,Excellion Biomedical Services | Carias R.B.V.,Excellion Biomedical Services | Teixeira M.V.T.,Excellion Biomedical Services | Da Cruz Pacheco I.,Excellion Biomedical Services | And 3 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy

Introduction. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is nowadays widely applied in different clinical scenarios, such as orthopedics, ophthalmology and healing therapies, as a growth factor pool for improving tissue regeneration. Studies into its clinical efficiency are not conclusive and one of the main reasons for this is that different PRP preparations are used, eliciting different responses that cannot be compared. Platelet quantification and the growth factor content definition must be defined in order to understand molecular mechanisms behind PRP regenerative strength. Standardization of PRP preparations is thus urgently needed. Methods. PRP was prepared by centrifugation varying the relative centrifugal force, temperature, and time. Having quantified platelet recovery and yield, the two-step procedure that rendered the highest output was chosen and further analyzed. Cytokine content was determined in different fractions obtained throughout the whole centrifugation procedure. Results: Our method showed reproducibility when applied to different blood donors. We recovered 46.9 to 69.5% of total initial platelets and the procedure resulted in a 5.4-fold to 7.3-fold increase in platelet concentration (1.4 × 10§ssup§ 6§esup§ to 1.9 × 10§ssup§6§esup§ platelets/μl). Platelets were highly purified, because only <0.3% from the initial red blood cells and leukocytes was present in the final PRP preparation. We also quantified growth factors, cytokines and chemokines secreted by the concentrated platelets after activation with calcium and calcium/thrombin. High concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor (TGF) were secreted, together with the anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN). No cytokines were secreted before platelet activation. TGF-β3 and IFNγ were not detected in any studied fraction. Clots obtained after platelet coagulation retained a high concentration of several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor and TGF. Conclusions: Our study resulted in a consistent PRP preparation method that yielded a cytokine and growth factor pool from different donors with high reproducibility. These findings support the use of PRP in therapies aiming for tissue regeneration, and its content characterization will allow us to understand and improve the clinical outcomes. © 2013 Amable et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an extremely powerful technique for monitoring gene expression. The quantity of the messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA) of interest should be normalized using a reference gene, in order to avoid unreliable results originated by the obtained RNA quality and quantity, manipulation errors and inhibitory contaminants. A reference gene is any gene that is stably and consistently expressed under the conditions being studied. Completely false data can be generated if a reference gene is not chosen adequately. In the present study, we compared expression levels of five putative reference genes (HPRT1, ACTB, GAPDH, RPL13A and B2M) in primary cultures of four different human cells: mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bone marrow, adipose tissue or umbilical cord Whartońs Jelly, and dermal fibroblasts, under different expansion and differentiation conditions. We observed that reference genes are not the same for different cells under the same culture conditions. Most stable reference genes under our experimental conditions were: RPL13A for adipose tissue- and Whartońs Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, and HPRT1 for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and dermal fibroblasts. ACTB was the most unstable gene when evaluating adipose tissue- and Whartońs Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, whilst GAPDH and B2M were the most unstable genes for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Source

Soares N.D.C.P.,Institute Ciencias Biomedicas | Teodoro A.J.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Oliveira F.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Santos C.A.D.N.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology | And 9 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men of the Western world. Lycopene has received attention because of its expcted potential to prevent cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of lycopene on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells and benign prostate hyperplastic cells. Using MTT assay, we observed a decrease of cell viability in all cancer cell lines after treatment with lycopene, which decreased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and increased in S and G2/M phases after 96 h of treatment in metastatic prostate cancer cell lineages. Flow citometry analysis of cell cycle revealed lycopene promoted cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase after 48 and 96 h of treatment in a primary cancer cell line. Using real time PCR assay, lycopene also induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells with altered gene expression of Bax and Bcl-2. No effect was observed in benign prostate hyperplasia cells. These results suggest an effect of lycopene on activity of human prostate cancer cells. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Teodoro A.J.,Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry | Teodoro A.J.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Oliveira F.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Martins N.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Cell International

Background: Lycopene, a major carotenoid component of tomato, has a potential anticancer activity in many types of cancer. Epidemiological and clinical trials rarely provide evidence for mechanisms of the compound's action, and studies on its effect on cancer of different cell origins are now being done. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lycopene on cell cycle and cell viability in eight human cancer cell lines.Methods: Human cell lines were treated with lycopene (1-5 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Cell viability was monitored using the method of MTT. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and apoptotic cells were identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick labeling (TUNEL) and by DAPI.Results: Our data showed a significant decrease in the number of viable cells in three cancer cells lines (HT-29, T84 and MCF-7) after 48 h treatment with lycopene, and changes in the fraction of cells retained in different cell cycle phases. Lycopene promoted also cell cycle arrest followed by decreased cell viability in majority of cell lines after 96 h, as compared to controls. Furthermore, an increase in apoptosis was observed in four cell lines (T-84, HT-29, MCF-7 and DU145) when cells were treated with lycopene.Conclusions: Our findings show the capacity of lycopene to inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle in different phases and increase apoptosis, mainly in breast, colon and prostate lines after 96 h. These observations suggest that lycopene may alter cell cycle regulatory proteins depending on the type of cancer and the dose of lycopene administration. Taken together, these data indicated that the antiproliferative effect of lycopene was cellular type, time and dose-dependent. © 2012 Teodoro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zambuzzi W.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Bonfante E.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Jimbo R.,Malmo University | Hayashi M.,Malmo University | And 6 more authors.

Background: It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology: Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings: The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions: It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. © 2014 Zambuzzi et al. Source

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