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Calbuco, Chile

Oelckers K.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Vike S.,University of Bergen | Duesund H.,University of Bergen | Gonzalez J.,Ewos Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2015

In 2007 Chile became the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The following year the salmon industry began to experience a severe health crisis produced in Chile by the virus causing infectious salmon anaemia. This virus was first recorded in Norway (1984), then in Canada, Scotland, Faroe Islands, United States and Chile in 2007. The infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a highly contagious disease of fish produced by a virus from the Orthomyxoviridae family. The most vulnerable species to this virus is the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The parasitic plague caused by the ectoparasite copepod sea louse, Caligus rogercresseyi, has been increasing and promotes the transmission of bacterial and viral illnesses. From all the species farmed in Chile, the Atlantic salmon is the one most susceptible to infestation by C. rogercresseyi. In 2006, the industry showed a significant increase in infestation rates by Caligus, and then in 2007 appeared outbreaks of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). In Norway, it has been shown that sea louse, Lepeophtherius salmonis, may have a role as a vector in the transmission of ISA virus, so the aim of this study was to determine whether C. rogercresseyi is a vector of transmission of infectious salmon anaemia virus in the Atlantic salmon, farmed in the south of Chile. © 2015, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar. All rights reserved.


Torres P.,University of Concepcion | Gonzalez J.,Ewos Innovation | Troncoso J.,Ewos Innovation | Plessing C.V.,University of Concepcion
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to prepare an inclusion complex of the insecticide emamectin benzoate (EB) with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by co-evaporation and spray drying methods. The complexation of both compounds was evaluated on the aqueous and solid state using phase solubility diagrams, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of the inclusion complexes at pH 8 had a 2-fold increase respect to the drug alone and dissolution profiles showed a rise in the dissolution rate. These results suggest that the use of HP-β-CD could be an interesting alternative to enhance the bioavailability of EB in salmons.


Rogel C.,University of Concepcion | Mendoza N.,University of Concepcion | Troncoso J.,Ewos Innovation | Gonzalez J.,Ewos Innovation | Von Plessing C.,University of Concepcion
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2011

The interaction between Florfenicol (FF), Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), and Chitosan (CH) has been studied in aqueous solution and in solid state, using 3 preparation methods (Evaporation, Lyophilization, Spray Drying) for HPβCD and only Spray Drying for Chitosan. The phase solubility study shows that the complex is formed with 1:1 stoichiometry and 181,4 M -1 as the association constant. The analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs evidenced the formation of inclusion complexes, mainly with the product prepared by spray drying. Studies in vitro showed that FF solubility was improved almost to double, with a better dissolution profile exhibited by the product prepared by spray drying.

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