EWOS Innovation

Calbuco, Chile

EWOS Innovation

Calbuco, Chile
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Pinto R.A.,University of Concepción | Torres P.M.,University of Concepción | Luengo J.E.,University of Concepción | Gomez C.P.,University of Concepción | And 3 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy | Year: 2014

In this work, nanoparticles of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) loaded with florfenicol were developed using the emulsification/diffusion/evaporation method. The influence of method parameters, such as the organic solvent used, temperature of solvent evaporation, type and time of homogenization procedure, lactic fraction of the polymer, were analyzed. The nanoparticles obtained had a monodispersed submicron size distribution (205 ± 31, 208 ± 31 nm), a negative zeta potential (-3.37 ± 6.33, -3.36 ± 5.90 mV) and an encapsulation efficiency of 8.24 ± 1.45%, 10.52 ± 2.01% when PLGA 50/50 and 75/25 were used, respectively. © 2014, Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. All right reserved.

Vargas-Chacoff L.,Austral University of Chile | Munoz J.L.P.,University of Los Lagos | Hawes C.,EWOS Innovation | Oyarzun R.,Austral University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

Caligus rogercresseyi sea lice negatively impact Chilean salmonid farming, but no complete characterization for the metabolic effects of Caligus infestation currently exists. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of C. rogercresseyi infestation on the metabolic responses of Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus kisutch. Energy metabolism responses to C. rogercresseyi were examined over a time-course infestation of both salmonid species. Plasma metabolite levels and enzymatic activities related to intermediate metabolisms of carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid were evaluated in the liver and muscle. Plasma glucose levels changed in both salmonid species, increasing at 1–3 days post-infestation. In turn, triglyceride levels increased at days 3 and 7 in O. kisutch and S. salar, respectively, while protein and total α-amino acids increased in O. kisutch but decreased in S. salar during infestation. Amino acid intermediate catabolic metabolism in the liver and muscle of O. kisutch increased during infestation, indicating a higher use of the gluconeogenic pathway than S. salar. Lipid intermediate anabolic metabolism increased in O. kisutch liver, remained unchanged in S. salar liver, and increased 1 day post-infestation in the muscle of both salmonids. Liver and muscle carbohydrate intermediate anabolic metabolism in O. kisutch increased during infestation, suggesting that this species preferentially uses the glycogenolytic-glucolytic pathway, in contrast with S. salar. In conclusion, amino acid and carbohydrate catabolism enzymes in O. kisutch activated soon after initial sea lice infestation, which would allow this species to dispose of energy substrates earlier than S. salar. This physiological data contributes towards the ability of O. kisutch to more adeptly cope with the increased energy demand imposed by C. rogercresseyi infestation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists are one step closer to understanding the link between different diet strategies and gut health, with new research presenting the first general principles for how diet impacts the microbiota. Researchers from the University of Sydney have found that the availability of intestinal nitrogen to microbes in the gut plays a key role in regulating interactions between gut microbes and their host animal. The study is published today in Cell Metabolism and led by researchers at the University of Sydney's Charles Perkins Centre. "There are many different diet strategies that claim to promote gut health, and until now it has been very difficult to establish clear causality between various types of diet and their effect on the host's microbiome. This is because there are many complex factors at play, including food composition, eating pattern and genetic background," said lead author Associate Professor Andrew Holmes, from the Charles Perkins Centre and School of Life and Environmental Sciences. "This research really lays the groundwork for future modelling by setting out the rules for a general model of how diet shapes the gut ecosystem. The simple explanation is that when we eat in a way that encourages cooperation between ourselves and bacteria we achieve a good microbiome, but when we eat in a way that doesn't require cooperation this lets bacteria do whatever they want - and mischief can ensue." The balance of gut bacteria in the microbiome plays a key role in such functions as immune regulation and digestive wellbeing, and has been linked to other health outcomes like obesity. Past studies have identified several patterns for how diet influences the microbiome, yet this has not led to a workable model that explains microbial response across many different types of diets. This new research is the latest in a series stemming from a seminal study in which 25 different diets comprised of different amounts of protein, carbohydrates and fat were systematically varied in 858 mice. Despite the huge diversity of gut bacteria, two main response patterns emerged in the study - microbe species either increased or decreased in their abundance depending on the animal's protein and carbohydrate intake. "The largest nutrient requirements for our gut bacteria are carbon and nitrogen in the foods we eat. As carbohydrates contain no nitrogen but protein does, the bacterial community response to the host animal's diet is strongly affected by this diets' protein-carbohydrate ratio," said Associate Professor Holmes. "The fact that this same pattern was seen across almost all groups of gut bacteria indicates that the makeup of the microbial ecosystem is fundamentally shaped by a need to access nitrogen in the intestinal environment." The researchers' new model suggests that while high-carbohydrate diets were the most likely to support positive interactions in the microbiome, such benefits were relative to the protein intake of the host animal. Researchers hope the new findings will lay the foundations for more accurate computer simulations to test hundreds of different diet variants, helping to better predict which dietary combinations lead to optimal gut health. "There are many ways to achieve a good diet, and the same diet won't work in the same way in each person," said co-author Professor Stephen Simpson, Academic Director of the Charles Perkins Centre. "The next step will be to more rapidly characterise which dietary combinations promote the best outcomes for each of our gut microbiomes, and to this end we are developing a computer simulation for how this might work in practice." The research was a collaboration between researchers at the University of Sydney, the University of Western Australia, Concord Hospital, ANZAC Research Institute and EWOS Innovation, Norway.

PubMed | EWOS Innovation, University of Sydney, University of New South Wales, University of Helsinki and Charles Perkins Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences | Year: 2015

There is a strong association between aging, diet, and immunity. The effects of macronutrients and energy intake on splanchnic and hepatic lymphocytes were studied in 15 month old mice. The mice were ad-libitum fed 1 of 25 diets varying in the ratios and amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat over their lifetime. Lymphocytes in liver, spleen, Peyers patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes were evaluated using flow cytometry. Low protein intake reversed aging changes in splenic CD4 and CD8 T cells, CD4:CD8 T cell ratio, memory/effector CD4 T cells and nave CD4 T cells. A similar influence of total caloric intake in these ad-libitum fed mice was not apparent. Protein intake also influenced hepatic NK cells and B cells, while protein to carbohydrate ratio influenced hepatic NKT cells. Hepatosteatosis was associated with increased energy and fat intake and changes in hepatic Tregs, effector/memory T, and NK cells. Hepatic NK cells were also associated with body fat, glucose tolerance, and leptin levels while hepatic Tregs were associated with hydrogen peroxide production by hepatic mitochondria. Dietary macronutrients, particularly protein, influence splanchnic lymphocytes in old age, with downstream associations with mitochondrial function, liver pathology, and obesity-related phenotype.

Oelckers K.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Vike S.,University of Bergen | Duesund H.,University of Bergen | Gonzalez J.,Ewos Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2015

In 2007 Chile became the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The following year the salmon industry began to experience a severe health crisis produced in Chile by the virus causing infectious salmon anaemia. This virus was first recorded in Norway (1984), then in Canada, Scotland, Faroe Islands, United States and Chile in 2007. The infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a highly contagious disease of fish produced by a virus from the Orthomyxoviridae family. The most vulnerable species to this virus is the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The parasitic plague caused by the ectoparasite copepod sea louse, Caligus rogercresseyi, has been increasing and promotes the transmission of bacterial and viral illnesses. From all the species farmed in Chile, the Atlantic salmon is the one most susceptible to infestation by C. rogercresseyi. In 2006, the industry showed a significant increase in infestation rates by Caligus, and then in 2007 appeared outbreaks of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). In Norway, it has been shown that sea louse, Lepeophtherius salmonis, may have a role as a vector in the transmission of ISA virus, so the aim of this study was to determine whether C. rogercresseyi is a vector of transmission of infectious salmon anaemia virus in the Atlantic salmon, farmed in the south of Chile. © 2015, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar. All rights reserved.

PubMed | EWOS Innovation, University of Sydney and University of New South Wales
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11).

Rogel C.,University of Concepción | Mendoza N.,University of Concepción | Troncoso J.,Ewos Innovation | Gonzalez J.,Ewos Innovation | Von Plessing C.,University of Concepción
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2011

The interaction between Florfenicol (FF), Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), and Chitosan (CH) has been studied in aqueous solution and in solid state, using 3 preparation methods (Evaporation, Lyophilization, Spray Drying) for HPβCD and only Spray Drying for Chitosan. The phase solubility study shows that the complex is formed with 1:1 stoichiometry and 181,4 M -1 as the association constant. The analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs evidenced the formation of inclusion complexes, mainly with the product prepared by spray drying. Studies in vitro showed that FF solubility was improved almost to double, with a better dissolution profile exhibited by the product prepared by spray drying.

Torres P.,University of Concepción | Gonzalez J.,Ewos Innovation | Troncoso J.,Ewos Innovation | Plessing C.V.,University of Concepción
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to prepare an inclusion complex of the insecticide emamectin benzoate (EB) with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by co-evaporation and spray drying methods. The complexation of both compounds was evaluated on the aqueous and solid state using phase solubility diagrams, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of the inclusion complexes at pH 8 had a 2-fold increase respect to the drug alone and dissolution profiles showed a rise in the dissolution rate. These results suggest that the use of HP-β-CD could be an interesting alternative to enhance the bioavailability of EB in salmons.

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