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Gao J.,Evolution Capital | Shih C.,Evolution Capital | Kopec K.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Krzemiski W.,Pedagogical University of Cracow | Ren D.,Evolution Capital
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Two new species of Praearchitipula Kalugina, 1985, P. apprima sp. nov. and P. mirabilis sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. In addition, we propose to transfer Architipula abnormis Hao & Ren, 2009 (which is from the same locality of Daohugou) from Architipula of Limoniidae to Praearchitipula of Pediciidae: Praearchitipula abnormis (Hao & Ren, 2009) comb. nov. In addition, we propose to transfer Praearchitipula spasskia Kalugina, 1985 to the genus Mesotipula (Limoniidae, Architipulinae). We also suggest treating Praearchitipula lata Kalugina, 1985 as a junior synonym of Praearchitipula notabilis Kalugina, 1985. An emended generic diagnosis of Praearchitipula is provided. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Mappes J.,University of Jyväskylä | Kokko H.,Evolution Capital | Ojala K.,University of Jyväskylä | Lindstrom L.,University of Jyväskylä
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Insect communities consist of aposematic species with efficient warning colours against predation, as well as abundant examples of crypsis. To understand such coexistence, we here report results from a field experiment where relative survival of artificial larvae, varying in conspicuousness, was estimated in natural bird communities over an entire season. This takes advantage of natural variation in the proportion of naive predators: naivety peaks when young birds have just fledged. We show that the relative benefit of warning signals and crypsis changes accordingly. When naive birds are rare (early and late in the season), conspicuous warning signals improve survival, but conspicuousness becomes a disadvantage near the fledging time of birds. Such temporal structuring of predator-prey relationships facilitates the coexistence of diverse antipredatory strategies and helps explain two patterns we found in a 688-species community of Lepidoterans: larval warning signals remain rare and occur disproportionately often in seasons when predators are educated. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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