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Hoorn, Netherlands

Schurer R.,Evides NV | Tabatabai A.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Villacorte L.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Schippers J.C.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Kennedy M.D.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

In the period 2009-2012 Evides conducted extensive research with an open intake UF-SWRO desalination demonstration plant in the Oosterschelde area, Netherlands. Major attention was devoted to the performance of ultrafiltration (UF) as pre-treatment. It was established that in the period from July to March, i.e. outside Spring, limited UF fouling occurred and the UF could be operated continuously without coagulation and at limited chemical consumption. However, during the period April-June, UF fouling rate (i.e. permeability decline) increased severely. This coincided with the occurrence of algal bloom, as manifested by peak levels of algal count, chlorophyll and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP, as measured by Unesco-IHE). During the algal bloom, implementation of inline coagulation by ferric chloride was required. In 2010, coagulation was conducted by dosing in the UF buffer tank. However, UF operation appeared unstable, requiring increased coagulant doses (1-4 mg Fe/L). In Spring 2011, the dosing point was relocated to the UF feed pump suction side i.e closer to the UF skid. Now, a stable UF operation was accomplished for several weeks continuously at low doses (~0.5mg Fe/L). Therefore, the latter setup appeared promising for restoring a stable UF operation during algal bloom. The exact impact of the various regimes of mixing, floc formation and waste water recirculation on the interaction with (algal) foulants and UF membrane capillaries and the resultant operational stability of UF performance during algal bloom warrant further research efforts. © 2013 Desalination Publications. Source


Schurer R.,Evides NV | Janssen A.,Evides NV | Villacorte L.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Kennedy M.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2012

Evides Water Company is conducting extensive test work in an open intake ultrafiltration reverse osmosis (UF-RO) sea water desalination demonstration plant in the Oosterschelde area, South-Western Netherlands. Efficacy of chemically enhanced backwash (CEB) and coagulant in maintaining UF permeability were studied. It appeared that long CEB intervals (gt;3 - gt;7 d) and hence low chemical consumptions were attained for the period July-February without coagulant and at moderate flux (55 l m-2 h-1). For the period March-June, UF fouling accelerated, shortening CEB interval to 0.5 d. For 4 weeks in April-May severe UF fouling rendered operation without coagulant practically impossible. Therefore, coagulation was still required to over- come that period, whereas for the remainder of time (i.e., 90%) no benefit of coagulation became yet apparent, neither in filtrate quality, nor in UF operation. Observed UF fouling coincided with algal bloom, whereas raw water turbidity up to 50 FTU did not affect UF performance. If coagulation was applied, low doses (PACL, 0.3-0.5 mg l-1 Al3+ and ferric, 1 mg l-1 Fe3+) sufficed to restore long CEB intervals. However, PACL caused unacceptable degradation of SWRO membrane condition, whereas effects of ferric are still to be determined. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Shang R.,Technical University of Delft | van den Broek W.B.P.,Evides NV | Heijman S.G.J.,Technical University of Delft | van Agtmaal S.,Evides NV | Rietveld L.C.,Technical University of Delft
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011

Because of water scarcity in some regions of the Netherlands and new environmental concepts of water withdrawal, Dutch industrial water production has been shifting from surface water or scarce groundwater to wastewater in recent years. Because of this transformation, it is important to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as a source to produce industrial water, and to gain knowledge about water recycling and treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment is mostly used to produce water for industry. Four selected Dutch RO plants producing industrial water are analysed in this paper. Demineralized Water Plant (DWP) DECO and DWP Sas van Gent are using WWTP effluent as source water; DWP Baanhoek and DWP Botlek are producing industrial water from surface water. The alternative water source alters pre-treatment needs and RO operations. Compared to surface water, WWTP effluent requires more pre-treatment to prevent UF and RO membranes from fouling. Detailed comparisons between both types of RO plants were made based on the following criteria: 1. Feed water qualities, including the seasonal changes for the surface water and quality fluctuation for WWTP effluent; 2. Pre-treatment methods in compliance with the feed water situation; 3. RO operational problems during both surface water and effluent water desalination; 4. Risk of effluent water quantity shortage and quality insufficiency and management. Finally, the practice and experiences of the RO plants are summarized. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Kramer F.C.,Technical University of Delft | Shang R.,Technical University of Delft | Heijman S.G.J.,Technical University of Delft | Scherrenberg S.M.,Evides NV | And 2 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2015

Sewage is a nutrient rich reliable water source that is rather consistent in quality, volume and temperature, and is available in large amounts in urban areas. Decentralised reclamation of water including its constituents from municipal sewage, further referred to as sewer mining, is a concept in which municipal sewage is considered a resource instead of a waste stream. In this research, water reclamation in the sewer mining concept was studied using ceramic tight ultra- (UF) and ceramic nanofiltration (NF). In our current approach, ceramic membrane filtration is proposed as pre-treatment for reverse osmosis (RO) to produce demineralised water for industries from municipal sewage. The objectives of this research are to study (i) the membrane performance, (ii) the organic matter and ion rejection, and (iii) the biofouling potential of RO using permeate water from the ceramic filtration. The application of ceramic tight UF and ceramic NF for direct treatment of domestic sewage has been demonstrated in this study. The cross flow ceramic tight UF and NF fed with filtered sewage, can be operated for 1-4 days without any cleaning required. The membrane performance remained high with chemical cleaning with NaClO (0.1%) and HCl (0.1 mol L-1) solutions. On average about 81% of organic matter was rejected by both ceramic tight UF and NF membranes. Finally, the pressure drop increase in the MFS fed with ceramic NF permeate was low during an operation of 14 days. These results were comparable with the increase in pressure drop of an MFS fed with Dutch drinking water. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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