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Rotterdam, Netherlands

Rietveld L.C.,Technical University of Delft | Norton-Brandao D.,Technical University of Delft | Shang R.,Technical University of Delft | Van Agtmaal J.,Evides Industriewater | Van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft
Water Science and Technology

The implementation of wastewater reuse is becoming an increasingly important means of supplementing water supply needs and/or reducing costs. The present paper provides examples of possible uses of treated domestic effluent for the three sectors, i.e. public water supply, industrial and agricultural uses with the aim to address the feasibility of these applications. It is concluded that, although The Netherlands as a whole is considered to be a low water stressed country, regional fresh water scarcity and costs can result in the need for applications of domestic wastewater reuse. © IWA Publishing 2011. Source

Qi L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | You H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang Z.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Feng C.,Evides Industriewater | Agtmaal S.V.,Evides Industriewater
International Journal of Electrochemical Science

4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) degradation was investigated by catalytic ozonation in the presence of MnOx/γ-Al2O3/TiO2 (MAT) catalyst. MAT catalyst was synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation using Mn(NO3)2 as the precursor and γ-Al2O3/TiO2(AT) as the support at pH 6.5-7.5. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by the methods of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), indicating that the states of manganese oxidation were Mn3+ and Mn4+. MAT catalyst showed moreefficient performance with respect to support AT, and 4-CP degradation could achieve up to 69.38% in 10 min. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as an direct method was used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radicals showed that MAT catalysts promoted the production of hydroxyl radical and enhanced 4-CP degradation. The addition of tert-Butanol (TBA) remarkably inhibited the degradation efficiency of 4-CP by catalytic ozonation, which suggested that 4-CP degradation mainly followed the mechanism of hydroxyl radical oxidation. Increasing the main operating variables, including MAT mass, Mn-supported mass, ozone dose and initial pH, the degradation of 4-CP was promoted. © 2013 by ESG. Source

Janssen A.N.,Technical University of Delft | van Agtmaal J.,Evides Industriewater | den Broek W.B.P.v.,Evides Industriewater | Geilvoet A.J.,WitteveenBos | And 3 more authors.

An important trend in the development of ultrafiltration (UF) of wastewater effluent is the integration of pretreatment to improve the performance of membranes. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of three prefiltration techniques (multimedia filtration, granulated activated carbon filtration and biological activated carbon filtration) on foulants and performance of UF are presented. The objectives of the study are: (1) to establish the different effect of three prefiltration configurations on performance of UF and foulants of wastewater effluent and (2), to determine in which particle size range the most particles or colloidals are removed after the three prefiltration configurations. From all of the filters, the biological granulated activated carbon filter (BGAC) presented the highest increase of filterability. During this study, the specific ultrafiltration resistance (SUR) value of the filtrate is always below 5 · 1012 m- 2 independent on the incoming SUR value. From all the foulants especially the proteins and humic substances are removed by granulated activated carbon filter (GAC) and BGAC. BGAC is the only prefiltration technique that shows significant removal of the fraction between 0.1 μm and 0.2 μm. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Lowenberg J.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Baum J.A.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Zimmermann Y.-S.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Zimmermann Y.-S.,RWTH Aachen | And 3 more authors.

The suitability of three different pre-treatment technologies namely powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption, coagulation with ferric chloride and ultrafiltration (UF) as pre-treatment to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of a cooling tower blow down (CTBD) was investigated. Special attention was paid to the capability of the pre-treatment options to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the CTBD by applying advanced DOC characterization. Furthermore, the direct effect on the performance of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination was investigated.Advanced DOC analysis showed clear differences between the pre-treatment technologies in removal of total DOC and in removal of certain DOC fractions. By investigation of RO normalized flux decline after different pre-treatments an improvement of 10-20% by UF treatment and an additional improvement of 10-20% by PAC/UF treatment were found in comparison to RO performance on not pre-treated CTBD. The achieved results indicate the negative influence of chemical additives in the CTBD matrix on RO fouling and performance as well as pre-treatment efficiency.With PAC/UF pre-treatment resulting in the least fouling development the normalized flux decline remained high with roughly 40%-50% over 5. days of RO operation indicating the challenging nature of high DOC CTBD treatment for re-use. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Qi L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Yao J.,Harbin Institute of Technology | You H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang R.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering

To identify the intermediates of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and bring forward the degradation pathways in the process of catalytic ozonation of 4-CP, 4-CP was ozonated with MnOx/γ-Al2O3/TiO2 (MAT) catalyst, and 4-CP was almost decomposed within 30 min, the mineralization reaching above 94.1% at 100 min. The evident reduction of the degradation with the addition of the radical scavenger tert-butanol (TBA) and the stronger spin-adduct signals of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) indicated that 4-CP was oxidized primarily by hydroxyl radical (·OH). Analysis of GC-MS, HPLC and IC confirmed that aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids were predominant oxidative organic intermediates of 4-CP in catalytic ozonation. The main degradation steps were hydroxylation of 4-CP and the formation of hydroquinone, 4-chlororesorcinol and 4-chlorocatechol. The low molecular weight (LMW) acids, such as malic, malonic, oxalic, acetic, and formic acid, were formed from the further oxidation of the intermediates. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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