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Kistler K.D.,Evidera | Nalysnyk L.,Genzyme | Rotella P.,Evidera | Esser D.,Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a distinct form of interstitial pneumonia with unknown origin and poor prognosis. Current pharmacologic treatments are limited and lung transplantation is a viable option for appropriate patients. The aim of this review was to summarize lung transplantation survival in IPF patients overall, between single (SLT) vs. bilateral lung transplantation (BLT), pre- and post Lung Allocation Score (LAS), and summarize wait-list survival. Methods: A systematic review of English-language studies published in Medline or Embase between 1990 and 2013 was performed. Eligible studies were those of observational design reporting survival post-lung transplantation or while on the wait list among IPF patients. Results: Median survival post-transplantation among IPF patients is estimated at 4.5 years. From ISHLT and OPTN data, one year survival ranged from 75% - 81%; 3-year: 59% - 64%; and 5-year: 47% - 53%. Post-transplant survival is lower for IPF vs. other underlying pre-transplant diagnoses. The proportion of IPF patients receiving BLT has steadily increased over the last decade and a half. Unadjusted analyses suggest improved long-term survival for BLT vs. SLT; after adjustment for patient characteristics, the differences tend to disappear. IPF patients account for the largest proportion of patients on the wait list and while wait list time has decreased, the number of transplants for IPF patients has increased over time. OPTN data show that wait list mortality is higher for IPF patients vs. other diagnoses. The proportion of IPF patients who died while awaiting transplantation ranged from 14% to 67%. While later transplant year was associated with increased survival, no significant differences were noted pre vs. post LAS implementation; however a high LAS vs low LAS was associated with decreased one-year survival. Conclusions: IPF accounts for the largest proportion of patients awaiting lung transplants, and IPF is associated with higher wait-list and post-transplant mortality vs. other diagnoses. Improved BLT vs. SLT survival may be the result of selection bias. Survival pre- vs. post LAS appears to be similar except for IPF patients with high LAS, who have lower survival compared to pre-LAS. Data on post-transplant morbidity outcomes are sparse. © 2014 Kistler et al. Source

Raghu G.,University of Washington | Chen S.-Y.,Biogen Idec | Yeh W.-S.,Biogen Idec | Maroni B.,Biogen Idec | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Published data for the epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the USA are scarce. We sought to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and mortality risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis among US Medicare beneficiaries. Methods: We used administrative claims from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (aged 65 years and older) from the years 2000-11 as a data source. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. We estimated annual incidence and cumulative prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, median survival time of patients, and potential risk factors for diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and death between 2001 and 2011. We also estimated incidence and prevalence using more restrictive algorithms for diagnosis. Findings: The annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the Medicare population remained stable between 2001 and 2011, with an overall estimate of 93·7 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 91·9-95·4) across the study period. The annual cumulative prevalence increased steadily from 202·2 cases per 100 000 people in 2001 to 494·5 cases per 100 000 people in 2011. Among newly diagnosed patients with Medicare (mean age 79·4 years [SD 7·2], 54% female, 91% white), the median survival time was 3·8 years (95% CI 3·5-3·8). Older age and male sex were associated with a higher incidence of disease and shorter survival time after diagnosis. Mortality risk was lower in patients diagnosed in more recent years (median survival time 3·3 years [95% CI 3·0-3·8] in 2001 vs 4·0 years [3·8-4·5] in 2007). Interpretation: The incidence and prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in people aged 65 years and older in the USA are substantially higher than previously reported, and prevalence is increasing annually, even in the subgroups based on more restrictive algorithms for diagnosis. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis aged 65 years and older were living longer in 2011 than they were 10 years before, which could partly account for the steady increase in prevalence. Funding: Biogen Idec. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Leidy N.K.,Evidera | Murray L.T.,Evidera | Jones P.,St Georges, University of London | Sethi S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2014

Rationale: The EXAcerbations of Chronic Pulmonary Disease Tool (EXACT) is a patient-reported outcome measure to standardize the symptomatic assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations, including reported and unreported events. The instrument has been validated in a short-term study of patients with acute exacerbation and stable disease; its performance in longer-term studies has not been assessed. Objectives: To test the EXACT's performance in three randomized controlled trials and describe the relationship between resource-defined medically treated exacerbations (MTEs) and symptom (EXACT)-defined events. Methods: Prespecified secondary analyses of data from phase II randomized controlled trials testing new drugs for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: one 6-month trial (United States) (n = 235) and two 3-month, multinational trials (AZ 1 [n = 749], AZ 2 [n = 597]). In each case, the experimental drugs were found to be ineffective, permitting assessment of the EXACT's performance in three independent studies of moderate to severe high-risk patients on maintenance therapies. Measurements and Main Results: The mean age of subjects was 62 to 64 years; 48 to 76% were male. Mean FEV1 % predicted was 42 to 59%. EXACT scores exhibited internal consistency (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.90), reproducibility (intraclass correlation > 0.70), correlation with St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (Spearman rho [rs] = 0.62, 0.46, 0.46 in the three trials; P < 0.001), and Breathlessness Cough and Sputum Scale (AZ 1, rs = 0.83; AZ 2, rs = 0.83; P < 0.001). EXACT-defined events had a high correspondence with alternative indicators of worsening (94, 88, and 93%). In each trial, unreported events were similar in severity (mean EXACT score, 56, 57, 61 vs. 53, 54 [P < 0.05], 57 [P < 0.05], respectively; 100-point scale) and longer (median, 9, 8, 7 vs. 8, 7 [P < 0.01], 6 days, respectively) than moderate MTEs. Conclusions: Data generated through the EXACT offers insight into the symptomatic nature of MTEs and the frequency, severity, and duration of unreported symptom-defined events. Clinical trials registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (MPEX: NCT00739648; AZ 1: NCT00949975; AZ 2: NCT01023516). Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Background: The aim was to assess the cost impact of daptomycin compared to vancomycin treatment in patients hospitalised for complicated skin and soft-tissue infection (cSSTI) with suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the UK. Methods: A decision model was developed to estimate the costs associated with cSSTI treatment. Data on efficacy, treatment duration and early discharge from published clinical trials were used, with data gaps on standard clinical practice being filled by means of clinician interviews. Results: Total health-care costs per patient were GBP 6,214 and GBP 6,491 for daptomycin and vancomycin, respectively. A sensitivity analysis suggested that modifying the parameters within a reasonable range does not impact on the conclusion that the higher cost of daptomycin is likely to be offset by lower costs of monitoring and hospitalisation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that daptomycin not only provides an alternative treatment for multiple resistant infections, but may also reduce National Health Service costs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Blieden M.,Evidera | Paramore L.C.,Evidera | Shah D.,Purdue Pharma | Ben-Joseph R.,Purdue Pharma
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Acetaminophen is a commonly-used analgesic in the US and, at doses of more than 4 g/day, can lead to serious hepatotoxicity. Recent FDA and CMS decisions serve to limit and monitor exposure to high-dose acetaminophen. This literature review aims to describe the exposure to and consequences of high-dose acetaminophen among chronic pain patients in the US. Each year in the US, approximately 6% of adults are prescribed acetaminophen doses of more than 4 g/day and 30,000 patients are hospitalized for acetaminophen toxicity. Up to half of acetaminophen overdoses are unintentional, largely related to opioid-acetaminophen combinations and attempts to achieve better symptom relief. Liver injury occurs in 17% of adults with unintentional acetaminophen overdose. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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