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Pinho L.M.,ISEP | Quinones E.,Barcelona Supercomputing Center | Bertogna M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Marongiu A.,ETH Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings - 2014 17th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2014 | Year: 2014

The advent of next-generation many-core embedded platforms has the chance of intercepting a converging need for predictable high-performance coming from both the High-Performance Computing (HPC) and Embedded Computing (EC) domains. On one side, new kinds of HPC applications are being required by markets needing huge amounts of information to be processed within a bounded amount of time. On the other side, EC systems are increasingly concerned with providing higher performance in real-time, challenging the performance capabilities of current architectures. This converging demand, however, raises the problem about how to guarantee timing requirements in presence of parallel execution. This paper presents the approach of project P-SOCRATES for the design of an integrated framework for the execution of workload-intensive applications with real-time requirements on top of next-generation commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms based on many-core accelerated architectures. The time-criticality and parallelisation challenges are addressed by merging techniques coming from both HPC and EC domains, identifying the main sources of indeterminism and proposing efficient mapping and scheduling algorithms, along with the associated timing and schedulability analysis, to guarantee the real-time and performance requirements of the applications. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Gai P.,Evidence Srl | Heckmann R.,AbsInt Angewandte Informatik GmbH | Ferdinand C.,AbsInt Angewandte Informatik GmbH | Gentile G.,CEA List | And 4 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Modern automotive embedded systems are characterized by timing constraints at different levels in the design hierarchy and flow. System-level functions like modern active-safety functions are characterized by end-to-end constraints that span several ECUs and buses. ECU-level functions, like fuel injection controls need to cope with stringent resource requirements, tight time constraints and event-driven computations with different execution modes. This paper introduces some of the models, the techniques and the tool integration methods developed in the context of the INTERESTED project to guarantee timing correctness at all levels in the flow. In addition, we outline the issues arising from the application of these techniques to a fuel injection case study. Finally, we also discuss the implications in the integration/compatibility of the proposed flow with existing standards, like UML with the MARTE profile and AUTOSAR, and widely used commercial products, like Simulink and its code generator companion tools. Copyright © 2010 SAE International. Source

Gai P.,Evidence Srl | Esposito F.,Evidence Srl | Schiavi R.,Evidence Srl | Diglio C.,Piaggio | And 3 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems | Year: 2014

The paper describes the components of an envisioned open source framework that supports several stages in the model-based development of two- and three-wheelers software controls. The proposed solution supports the runtime execution on an OSEK-compatible [8] real-time operating system for multicore platforms. The framework consists of a modeling and simulation tool (including hierarchical state machines) and a code generator for the development of the functional model of controls and the definition of their task implementation; an OSEK/AUTOSAR operating system and device driver stack; OS and I/O configuration tools. The platform has been released open-source under an industry-friendly license. Our framework is currently in use for the development of innovative two-three wheelers control systems at Piaggio. In this paper we describe the experience matured in the application development, the benefits and current limitations of the approach. In particular, the result of this study has been a demonstrator platform which includes a BLDC motor control written using the proposed framework. © 2014 SAE International and © 2014 SAE Japan. Source

Avanzini A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Valente P.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Gai P.,Evidence Srl
2015 10th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

Modern user interfaces grow more and more complex and cannot be possibly handled by the same software components in charge of the timely execution of safety-critical control tasks. Evidence Srl recently proposed a single-board dual-OS system aimed at combining the flexibility of the Linux general-purpose operating system, which is able to produce any complex user interface, and the reliability of the automotive-grade ERIKA Enterprise operating system, a small-footprint real-time OS suitable for safety-critical control tasks and able to execute commands triggered by Linux. The operating systems run on dedicated cores and, for efficiency reasons, they share memory with limited support for memory protection: although the system allows running two operating systems, from a safety certification point of view it suffers from the fact that safety-critical and non-safety-critical components should be isolated from each other. In this paper we present, as an improvement to the initial implementation, again a double-OS system running, on a dual-core platform, ERIKA Enterprise and a full-featured Linux OS, but using the Xen hypervisor to run the two operating systems in two isolated domains. In the proposed setup, each of the domains runs on a dedicated core, assigned statically by the hypervisor. Linux runs as the control domain, and is therefore able to execute any of the components of the Xen toolstack; it is also able to grant to the real-time operating system access to any I/O-memory range needed for control tasks. The described system also provides a simple, safe communication mechanism between the two operating systems, based on Xen's inter-domain event notification primitives and explicit sharing of a dedicated set of memory pages by the real-time operating system. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Wong S.,Technical University of Delft | Carro L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Kavvadias S.,University of Siena | Keramidas G.,Industrial Systems Institute | And 4 more authors.
CASES'12 - Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Conference on Compilers, Architectures and Synthesis for Embedded Systems, Co-located with ESWEEK | Year: 2012

In current-day embedded systems design, one is faced with cut-throat competition to deliver new functionalities in increasingly shorter time frames. This is now achieved by incorporating processor cores into embedded systems through (re-)programmability. However, this is not always beneficial for the performance or energy consumption. Therefore, adaptable embedded systems have been proposed to deal with these negative effects by reconfiguring the critical sections of an embedded system. In these proposals, we are clearly witnessing a trend that is moving from static configurations to dynamic (re)configurations. Consequently, the proposed embedded systems can adapt their functionality at run-time to meet the application(s) requirements (e.g., performance) while operating in different environments (e.g., power and hardware resources). Besides processor cores, we have to deal with memory hierarchies and network-on-chips that should also be (dynamically) reconfigurable. Furthermore, the interplay of these components is increasing the design complexity that can be only alleviated if they can self-optimize. In this tutorial, we will present and discuss several strategies to perform the mentioned dynamic reconfiguration of the processor, memory, and NoC components - together with their interaction. We will review and present the state-of-the- art for the design of each component that allows for a gradual selection of design points in the trade-off between performance and power. Finally, we will highlight an open-source project that incorporates many approaches for dynamic reconfiguration in both actual hardware and simulation accompanied by the necessary tools. Source

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