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Rochester, MN, United States

Al Nofal A.,Mayo Medical School | Al Nofal A.,Evidence Based Practice Research Program | Lteif A.,Mayo Medical School
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Objective To report our experience in treating infants and toddlers with central diabetes insipidus (DI) with thiazide diuretics. Study design A retrospective chart review of all infants and toddlers who were treated with thiazide diuretics for central DI at the Mayo Clinic between 1996 and 2014. Results Our cohort consisted of 13 patients. The median age at the start of therapy was 6 months (IQR, 1-14 months). Eight patients were given chlorothiazide at a starting dose of 5-10 mg/kg/day, and 5 patients were treated with hydrochlorothiazide at a starting dose of 1-2 mg/kg/day. The median age at the cessation of thiazide therapy was 18 months (IQR, 11.5-39 months). The main reason for stopping was the lack of continued response, in addition to hypernatremia. There was no hospitalization secondary to hyponatremia and only 1 hospitalization secondary to hypernatremia while receiving thiazide therapy. Calcium was checked periodically in 7 of the 13 patients, and 2 of these 7 patients had persistent hypercalcemia. Conclusion Thiazide diuretics appear to be safe and effective in treating infants with central DI. They can be continued after the introduction of solid food, and until a lack of response is observed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Almasri J.,Evidence Based Practice Research Program | Alsawas M.,Evidence Based Practice Research Program | Mainou M.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Mustafa R.A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2016

Background The decision about the type and location of a hemodialysis vascular access is challenging and can be affected by multiple factors. We explored the effect of several a priori chosen patient characteristics on access outcomes. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through November 13, 2014. We included studies that evaluated patency, mortality, access infection, and maturation of vascular access in adults requiring long-term dialysis. Pairs of reviewers working independently selected the studies and extracted the data. Outcomes were pooled across studies using the random-effects model. Results Two hundred studies met the eligibility criteria reporting on 875,269 vascular accesses. Overall, studies appeared to have provided incidence rates at low to moderate risk of bias. The overall primary patency at 2 years was higher for fistulas than for grafts and catheters (55%, 40%, and 50%, respectively). Patency was lower in individuals with diabetes, coronary artery disease, older individuals, and in women. Mortality at 2 years was highest with catheters, followed by grafts then fistulas (26%, 17%, and 15%, respectively). Conclusions The current evidence remains in support of autogenous access as the best approach when feasible. We provide incidence rates in various subgroups to inform shared decision making and facilitate the conversation with patients about access planning. © Copyright 2016 by the Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Al Nofal A.,Mayo Medical School | Al Nofal A.,Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit | Al Nofal A.,Evidence Based Practice Research Program | Gionfriddo M.R.,Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Introduction Thyroid ultrasound (US) is a widely used tool for evaluating thyroid nodules. Various US features have been suggested as predictors of thyroid cancer in children. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of different thyroid US features in detecting thyroid cancer in children. Methods We searched multiple online databases for cohort studies that enrolled paediatric patients with thyroid nodules (age <21 years) and evaluated the accuracy of 12 relevant ultrasound features. Diagnostic measures were pooled across studies using a random effects model. Results The search strategy yielded 1199 citations, of which 12 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria (750 nodules). The prevalence of thyroid cancer was 27·2% (40·8% in patients with a history of radiation exposure and 23·2% in patients without a history of exposure to radiation). The most common cancer was papillary thyroid cancer (86·7%). The presence of internal calcifications and enlarged cervical lymph nodes were the US features with the highest likelihood ratio [4·46 (95% CI: 1·87-10·64) and 4·96 (95% CI: 2·01-12·24), respectively] for thyroid cancer. A cystic nodule was the feature with highest likelihood ratio for benign nodules [1·96 (95% CI: 0·87-4·43)]. Conclusion Thyroid US features are not highly accurate predictors of benign or malignant aetiology of thyroid nodules in children. Internal calcification may predict malignancy, and cystic appearance may suggest benign aetiology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Jonas M.M.,Hepatology and Nutrition | Lok A.S.F.,University of Michigan | Mcmahon B.J.,Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program | Brown R.S.,New York Medical College | And 14 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2016

Most individuals with chronic hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection acquired the infection around the time of birth or during early childhood. We aimed to synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in the management of chronic HBV infection in children. We conducted a comprehensive search of multiple databases from 1988 to December 2, 2014, for studies that enrolled children (<18 years) with chronic HBV infection treated with antiviral therapy. We included observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two independent reviewers selected studies and extracted data. In the 14 included studies, two cohort studies showed no significant reduction in the already low risk of hepatocellular carcinoma or cirrhosis and 12 RCTs reported intermediate outcomes. In RCTs with posttreatment follow-up <12 months, antiviral therapy compared to placebo improved alanine aminotransferase normalization (risk ratio [RR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-3.2), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) clearance/loss (RR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.1), HBV DNA suppression (RR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.6), HBeAg seroconversion (RR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3), and hepatitis B surface antigen clearance (RR = 5.8, 95% CI 1.1-31.5). In RCTs with posttreatment follow-up ≥12 months, antiviral therapy improved cumulative HBeAg clearance/loss (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-3.1), HBeAg seroconversion (RR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), alanine aminotransferase normalization (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and HBV DNA suppression (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not hepatitis B surface antigen clearance or seroconversion. Conclusion: In children with chronic HBV infection, antivirals compared to no antiviral therapy improve HBV DNA suppression and frequency of alanine aminotransferase normalization and HBeAg seroconversion. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Lok A.S.F.,University of Michigan | Mcmahon B.J.,Liver Diseases and Hepatitis Program | Brown R.S.,New York Medical College | Wong J.B.,Tufts Medical Center | And 23 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2016

Chronic hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection remains a significant global health problem. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to help providers determine when treatment should be initiated, which medication is most appropriate, and when treatment can safely be stopped. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases HBV guideline methodology and writing committees developed a protocol a priori for this systematic review. We searched multiple databases for randomized controlled trials and controlled observational studies that enrolled adults ≥18 years old diagnosed with chronic HBV infection who received antiviral therapy. Data extraction was done by pairs of independent reviewers. We included 73 studies, of which 59 (15 randomized controlled trials and 44 observational studies) reported clinical outcomes. Moderate-quality evidence supported the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in patients with immune active chronic HBV infection in reducing the risk of cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In immune tolerant patients, moderate-quality evidence supports improved intermediate outcomes with antiviral therapy. Only very low-quality evidence informed the questions about discontinuing versus continuing antiviral therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients who seroconverted from hepatitis B e antigen to hepatitis B e antibody and about the safety of entecavir versus tenofovir. Noncomparative and indirect evidence was available for questions about stopping versus continuing antiviral therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients, monotherapy versus adding a second agent in patients with persistent viremia during treatment, and the effectiveness of antivirals in compensated cirrhosis with low-level viremia. Conclusion: Most of the current literature focuses on the immune active phases of chronic HBV infection; decision-making in other commonly encountered and challenging clinical settings depends on indirect evidence. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

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