Unterach, Austria
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Muresanu D.F.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Muresanu D.F.,RoNeuro Institute for Neurological Research and Diagnostic | Heiss W.-D.,Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research | Hoemberg V.,SHR Gesundheitszentrum Bad Wimpfen GmbH | And 8 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2016

Background and Purpose - The aim of this trial was to investigate whether stroke patients who receive Cerebrolysin show improved motor function in the upper extremities at day 90 compared with patients who receive a placebo. Methods - This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. Patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (30 mL/d) or a placebo (saline) once daily for 21 days, beginning at 24 to 72 hours after stroke onset. The patients also participated in a standardized rehabilitation program for 21 days that was initiated within 72 hours after stroke onset. The primary end point was the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90. Results - The nonparametric effect size on the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90 indicated a large superiority of Cerebrolysin compared with the placebo (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.79; P<0.0001). The multivariate effect size on global status, as assessed using 12 different outcome scales, indicated a small-to-medium superiority of Cerebrolysin (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.65; P<0.0001). The rate of premature discontinuation was <5% (3.8%). Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions - Cerebrolysin had a beneficial effect on function and global outcome in early rehabilitation patients after stroke. Its safety was comparable with that of the placebo, suggesting a favorable benefit/risk ratio. Because this study was exploratory and had a relatively small sample size, the results should be confirmed in a large-scale, randomized clinical trial. Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Unique identifier: 2007-000870-21. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Sharma H.S.,Uppsala University Hospital | Menon P.K.,Uppsala University Hospital | Lafuente J.V.,University of the Basque Country | Aguilar Z.P.,Zystein LLC | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (FMIONPs) are being explored for the development of various biomedical applications, e.g., cancer chemotherapy and/or several other radiological or diagnostic purposes. However, the effects of these NPs per se on the central nervous system (CNS) injury or repair are not well known. This review deals with different aspects of FMIONPs in relation to brain function based on the current literature as well as our own investigation in animal models of CNS injuries. It appears that FMIONPs are innocuous when administered intravenously within the CNS under normal conditions. However, abnormal reactions to FMIONPs in the brain or spinal cord could be seen if they are combined with CNS injuries e.g., hyperthermia or traumatic insults to the brain or spinal cord. Thus, administration of FMIONPs in vivo following whole body hyperthermia (WBH) or a focal spinal cord injury (SCI) exacerbates cellular damage. Since FMIONPs could help in diagnostic purposes or enhance the biological effects of radiotherapy/chemotherapy it is likely that these NPs may have some adverse reaction as well under disease condition. Thus, under such situation, adjuvant therapy e.g., Cerebrolysin (Ever NeuroPharma, Austria), a suitable combination of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments are the need of the hour to contain such cellular damages caused by the FMIONPs in vivo. Our observations show that co-administration of Cerebrolysin prevents the FMIONPs induced pathologies associated with CNS injuries. These observations support the idea that FMIONPs are safe for the CNS in disease conditions when co-administered with cerebrolysin. This indicates that cerebrolysin could be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent cellular damages in disease conditions where the use of FMIONPs is required for better efficacy e.g., cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Zhang Y.,Ford Motor Company | Chopp M.,Ford Motor Company | Chopp M.,Oakland University | Meng Y.,Ford Motor Company | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2015

OBJECT: Long-term memory deficits occur after mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs), and effective treatment modalities are currently unavailable. Cerebrolysin, a peptide preparation mimicking the action of neurotrophic factors, has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The present study investigated the long-term effects of Cerebrolysin treatment on cognitive function in rats after mTBI. METHODS:Rats subjected to closed-head mTBI were treated with saline (n=11) or Cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, n=11) starting 24 hours after injury and then daily for 28 days. Sham animals underwent surgery without injury (n=8). To evaluate cognitive function, the modified Morris water maze (MWM) test and a social odor-based novelty recognition task were performed after mTBI. All rats were killed on Day 90 after mTBI, and brain sections were immunostained for histological analyses of amyloid precursor protein (APP), astrogliosis, neuroblasts, and neurogenesis. RESULTS:Mild TBI caused long-lasting cognitive memory deficits in the MWM and social odor recognition tests up to 90 days after injury. Compared with saline treatment, Cerebrolysin treatment significantly improved both long-term spatial learning and memory in the MWM test and nonspatial recognition memory in the social odor recognition task up to 90 days after mTBI (p < 0.05). Cerebrolysin significantly increased the number of neuroblasts and promoted neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and it reduced APP levels and astrogliosis in the corpus callosum, cortex, dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 regions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that Cerebrolysin treatment of mTBI improves long-term cognitive function, and this improvement may be partially related to decreased brain APP accumulation and astrogliosis as well as increased neuroblasts and neurogenesis. © AANS, 2015.


Zhang Y.,Ford Motor Company | Chopp M.,Ford Motor Company | Chopp M.,Oakland University | Meng Y.,Ford Motor Company | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Object. Cerebrolysin is a unique peptide preparation that mimics the action of neurotrophic factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of acute treatment of experimental closed head injury (CHI) in rats with Cerebrolysin on neurological function. Methods. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 60) were subjected to impact acceleration-induced CHI. Closed head injured rats received intraperitoneal injection of saline (n = 30) or Cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, n = 30) starting 1 hour postinjury and administered once daily until they were killed (2 or 14 days after CHI). To evaluate functional outcome, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), foot fault, adhesive removal, and Morris water maze (MWM) tests were performed. Animals were killed on Day 14 (n = 20) after injury, and their brains were removed and processed for measurement of neuronal cells, axonal damage, apoptosis, and neuroblasts. The remaining rats (n = 40) were killed 2 days postinjury to evaluate cerebral microvascular patency by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran perfusion (n = 16) and to measure the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, n = 8) and by immunohistochemical analysis (n = 16). Results. At 14 days post-CHI, the Cerebrolysin treatment group exhibited significant improvements in functional outcomes (the adhesive removal, mNSS, foot-fault, and MWM tests), and significantly more neurons and neuroblasts were present in the dentate gyrus (DG) (p < 0.05) compared with the saline-treated group (p < 0.05). At 2 days post-CHI, the Cerebrolysin group exhibited a significantly higher percentage of phosphorylated neurofilament H (pNF-H)-positive staining area in the striatum (p < 0.05), a significant increase in the percentage of FITC-dextran perfused vessels in the brain cortex (p < 0.05), a significant increase in the number of VEGF-positive cells (p < 0.05), and a significant reduction in the MMP-9 staining area (p < 0.05) compared with the saline-treated group. There was no significant difference in mRNA levels of MMP-9 and VEGF in the hippocampus and cortex 48 hours postinjury between Cerebrolysin- and saline-treated rats that sustained CHI. Conclusions. Acute Cerebrolysin treatment improves functional recovery in rats after CHI. Cerebrolysin is neuroprotective for CHI (increased neurons in the dentate gyrus and the CA3 regions of the hippocampus and increased neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus) and may preserve axonal integrity in the striatum (significantly increased percentage of pNF-H-positive tissue in the striatum). Reduction of MMP-9 and elevation of VEGF likely contribute to enhancement of vascular patency and integrity as well as neuronal survival induced by Cerebrolysin. These promising results suggest that Cerebrolysin may be a useful treatment in improving the recovery of patients with CHI. © AANS, 2013.


Zhang L.,Ford Motor Company | Chopp M.,Ford Motor Company | Chopp M.,Oakland University | Meier D.H.,EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : Cerebrolysin, a mixture of neurotrophic peptides, enhances neurogenesis and improves neurological outcome in experimental neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway stimulates neurogenesis after stroke. The present study tests whether the Shh pathway mediates cerebrolysin-induced neurogenesis and improves neurological outcome after stroke. METHODS - : Rats subjected to embolic stroke were treated with cerebrolysin with or without cyclopamine. RESULTS - : Using neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle of adult rats, we found that cerebrolysin significantly increased neural progenitor cells proliferation and their differentiation into neurons and myelinating oligodendrocytes, which were associated with upregulation of Shh and its receptors patched and smoothened. Blockage of the Shh signaling pathway with a pharmacological smoothened inhibitor, cyclopamine, abolished cerebrolysin-induced in vitro neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. In the ischemic rats, treatment with cerebrolysin starting 24 hours after stroke significantly increased neural progenitor cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and enhanced neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, and axonal remodeling in the peri-infarct area. Moreover, profound neurological function improvements were observed in rats treated with cerebrolysin from week 3 to week 5 after stroke onset compared with vehicle-treated rats. However, in vivo inhibition of the Shh pathway with cyclopamine completely reversed the effects of cerebrolysin on neurorestoration and functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS - : These results demonstrate that the Shh pathway mediates cerebrolysin-enhanced neurogenesis and white matter remodeling and improves functional recovery in rats after stroke. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


PubMed | EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH, Medical University of Graz and QPS Austria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2015

Aging is associated with morphological and functional changes in the brain, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive performance. Growth factors like BDNF are suggested to be involved in the regulation of age-related processes in the brain. A novel dietary supplement produced from purified nerve cell proteins, N-PEP-12, has shown to share properties with naturally occurring peptide growth factors by stimulating neurite outgrowth and beneficial effects on neuronal survival and protection against metabolic stress in cell cultures. The current study investigates the effects of long-term intake on age-dependent memory decline by assessing cognitive performance and synaptic density. All the experiments were performed in aged Long Evans rats randomly assigned to saline or N-PEP-12 once daily by gavage over a period of three months. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Water Maze after one, two and three months of treatment. Histological examinations were performed in the hippocampal formation and in the entorhinal cortex by measuring the synaptic density. This study shows that the oral intake of N-PEP-12 has beneficial effects on the cognitive performance of aged animals and that these effects go along with an increase in the synaptic density. Thus, N-PEP-12 may help maintain memory and learning performance during the aging process.


Alvarez X.A.,EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center | Cacabelos R.,EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center | Sampedro C.,EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center | Couceiro V.,EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2011

Treatment with neurotrophic agents might enhance and/or prolong the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the safety and efficacy of the neurotrophic compound Cerebrolysin (10 ml; n=64), donepezil (10 mg; n=66) and a combination of both treatments (n=67) in mild-to-moderate (mini-mental state examination-MMSE score 12-25) probable AD patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial. Primary end-points were global outcome (Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input; CIBIC+) and cognition (change from baseline in AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale+; ADAS-cog+) at week 28. Changes in functioning (AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale, ADCS-ADL) and behaviour (Neuropsychiatric Inventory, NPI) were secondary endpoints. Treatment effects in cognitive, functional and behavioral domains showed no significant group differences; whereas improvements in global outcome favored Cerebrolysin and the combination therapy. Cognitive performance improved in all treatment groups (mean±SD for Cerebrolysin: -1.7±7.5; donepezil: -1.2±6.1; combination: -2.3±6.0) with best scores in the combined therapy group at all study visits. Cerebrolysin was as effective as donepezil, and the combination of neurotrophic (Cerebrolysin) and cholinergic (donepezil) treatment was safe in mild-to-moderate AD. The convenience of exploring long-term synergistic effects of this combined therapy is suggested. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Thome J.,University of Rostock | Doppler E.,EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH
Drugs of Today | Year: 2012

The safety of Cerebrolysin has been shown through many years of clinical use, observations from postmarketing surveillance studies, and safety data from randomized, controlled clinical trials. The reported events showed that adverse reactions to Cerebrolysin were generally mild and transient. Most common adverse events included vertigo, agitation and feeling hot. In the controlled clinical trials analyzed for this report, the incidence of adverse events was similar in Cerebrolysin- and placebo-treated groups. Cerebrolysin seems to be safe when used in combination with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil or rivastigmine. To our knowledge, Cerebrolysin was not associated with major changes in vital signs or laboratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.


Hartwig K.,EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH | Fackler V.,EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH | Jaksch-Bogensperger H.,Paracelsus Medical University | Winter S.,EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Cerebrolysin (EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH, Austria) is a peptidergic drug indicated for clinical use in stroke, traumatic brain injury and dementia. The therapeutic effect of Cerebrolysin is thought to ensure from its neurotrophic activity, which shares some properties with naturally occurring neurotrophic factors. However, the exact mechanism of action of Cerebrolysin is yet to be fully deciphered. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Cerebrolysin in a widely used in vitro model of hypoxia-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, namely cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-treatment of PC12 cells. CoCl2-cytotoxicity was indicated by a reduced cell-diameter, cell shrinkage, increased pro-apoptotic Caspase-activities and a decreased metabolic activity. Cerebrolysin maintained the cell-diameter of CoCl2-treated naïve PC12 cells, decreased the activation of Caspase 3/7 in CoCl2-stressed naïve PC12 cells and restored the cells' metabolic activity in CoCl2-impaired naïve and differentiated PC12 cells. Cerebrolysin treatment also decreased the levels of superoxide observed after exposure to CoCl2. Investigating the mechanism of action, we could demonstrate that Cerebrolysin application to CoCl2-stressed PC12 cells increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β, resulting in the inhibition of GSK3β. This might become clinically relevant for Alzheimer's disease, since GSK3β activity has been linked to the production of amyloid beta. Taken together, Cerebrolysin was found to have neuroprotective effects in CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. © 2014 ISDN.


Patent
EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH | Date: 2012-04-11

A novel dietary supplement mixture having neuroprotective activity is disclosed which comprises a peptide formulation, comprising a peptide defined by sequence: ASAFQGIGSTHWVYDGVGNS.

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