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Gordon A.L.,Evelina London Childrens Hospital | Gordon A.L.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2014

Aim: The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, Child-Youth version (ICF-CY) provides a framework for describing and evaluating health, intervention outcomes, and needs assessment. It can, however, also serve as a system for classifying the focus of outcome studies and identification of gaps in current knowledge. Method: The paediatric arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) population was targeted. Multiple databases were systematically searched for AIS outcome studies focussing on functioning or disability. Findings were rated using the ICF-CY framework. Results: Twenty-eight studies were identified. Most were cross-sectional and age range at assessment varied widely. Sixty-seven different standardized measures were used, predominantly evaluating body functions. The most common domains of activity and participation reported were learning and applying knowledge, general tasks and demands, and self-care skills. Health-related quality of life was measured in nine papers. Environmental factors were rarely evaluated. Interpretation: AIS outcome studies addressing the relationship between body structures and functions (e.g. brain lesion characteristics, neurological examination findings) and activities, participation, and quality of life have emerged in recent years. Comparison of findings across studies is complicated by design and tool selection. The relationship between components of activity limitation and participation restriction is rarely explored. © 2013 Mac Keith Press. Source


Taylor J.,Evelina London Childrens Hospital | Flinter F.,Guys and St Thomas NHS FT
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2014

Haematuria is a common finding in children. It is important to identify the underlying cause whenever possible so that appropriate follow-up is organised, particularly if the child is at risk of developing renal impairment or renal failure in later life. Until recently nephrologists relied on renal biopsy with examination under the electron microscope to make a diagnosis, but genetic testing can often provide an answer, together with additional information about the pattern of inheritance, which is also useful for other family members. Source


Rose A.M.,University College London | Hall C.S.,University College London | Martinez-Alier N.,Evelina London Childrens Hospital
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2014

Worldwide, more than 3 million children are infected with HIV and, without treatment, mortality among these children is extremely high. Both acute and chronic malnutrition are major problems for HIV-positive children living in resource-limited settings. Malnutrition on a background of HIV represents a separate clinical entity, with unique medical and social aetiological factors. Children with HIV have a higher daily calorie requirement than HIV-negative peers and also a higher requirement for micronutrients; furthermore, coinfection and chronic diarrhoea due to HIV enteropathy play a major role in HIV-associated malnutrition. Contributory factors include late presentation to medical services, unavailability of antiretroviral therapy, other issues surrounding healthcare provision and food insecurity in HIV-positive households. Treatment protocols for malnutrition have been greatly improved, yet there remains a discrepancy in mortality between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. In this review, the aetiology, prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HIV-positive children are examined, with particular focus on resource-limited settings where this problem is most prevalent. Source


Kanabar D.,Evelina London Childrens Hospital
Drugs in R and D | Year: 2014

Fever is a common symptom of childhood infections that in itself does not require treatment. The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) advises home-based antipyretic treatment for low-risk feverish children only if the child appears distressed. The recommended antipyretics are ibuprofen or paracetamol (acetaminophen). They are equally recommended for the distressed, feverish child; therefore, healthcare professionals, parents and caregivers need to decide which of these agents to administer if the child is distressed. This narrative literature review examines recent data on ibuprofen and paracetamol in feverish children to determine any clinically relevant differences between these agents. The data suggest that these agents have similar safety profiles in this setting and in the absence of underlying health issues, ibuprofen seems to be more effective than paracetamol at reducing NICE's treatment criterion, 'distress' (as assessed by discomfort levels, symptom relief, and general behavior). © 2014 The Author(s). Source


Mosimann B.,Kings College | Zidere V.,Kings College | Simpson J.M.,Evelina London Childrens Hospital | Allan L.D.,Kings College
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2014

Objective To document outcome following prenatal diagnosis of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), particularly associated anomalies and the requirement for surgical closure of the defect. Methods All cases of prenatal diagnosis of a VSD made by fetal cardiologists at a tertiary fetal medicine referral center in the period January 2002 to December 2011 were extracted from our database. Data regarding fetal cardiac diagnosis, extracardiac anomalies, nuchal translucency thickness and karyotype were noted. Results A total of 171 cases fulfilled our selection criteria. Of these, 69% were diagnosed with a perimembranous VSD and 31% with a muscular defect. The median gestational age at diagnosis was 21 + 6 (range, 12 + 0 to 37 + 3) weeks. Owing to severe extracardiac or genetic conditions, pregnancy resulted in intrauterine death or termination in 49% cases, and postnatal death occurred in 9% of cases. Seventy-two babies were liveborn, and were regarded as potential surgical candidates if hemodynamics suggested that surgery was indicated. Surgical closure of the VSD proved necessary in 50% of the patients with a perimembranous VSD and 13% of those with a muscular VSD. All patients operated on survived surgical repair. No karyotypic abnormalities were identified in fetuses with VSDs that had normal first-trimester screening and no other sonographic abnormalities. Conclusions A high proportion of VSDs diagnosed during fetal life (29%) require postnatal surgical intervention. The assessment of hemodynamic significance from fetal echocardiography is imperfect. The presence of extracardiac abnormalities or abnormal results on first-trimester screening has a major impact on the incidence of karyotypic abnormalities in affected fetuses. This should inform discussions with parents about invasive testing. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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