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Fishman-Jacob T.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Youdim M.B.H.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Mandel S.A.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research
Neurodegenerative Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: High-throughput gene-based platform studies in human postmortem substantia nigra (SN) from sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases have revealed significant dysregulation of genes involved in biological processes linked to previously established neurodegenerative mechanisms in both sporadic and hereditary PD. Objective: Our study aimed to develop a new genetic model of PD by modulating the expression of single genes that were found to be most significantly affected in SN of sporadic PD. Methods: SN-derived cell line (SN4741 cells) was infected with short hairpin RNA lentiviruses carrying different gene-specific sequences. Results: Silencing of the E3 ligase ubiquitin SKP1A resulted in a decline in the expression of dopaminergic phenotypic markers together with progression into an aberrant cell cycle and death. Furthermore, added knockout of the dopamine-metabolizing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, found almost absent in sporadic PD SN pars compacta, exacerbated the vulnerability of SKP1A-silenced neurons to MPP+ and neurotrophin deprivation. Conclusion: Future studies should focus on a careful consideration of crucial dopaminergic gene network interactions as emerged from human sporadic PD, which will serve as a basis for the development of a slowly progressive genetic animal model of sporadic PD, with the potential of evaluating drugs with 'disease-modifying activity'. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Molochnikov L.,Tel Aviv University | Rabey J.M.,Tel Aviv University | Dobronevsky E.,Asaf feh Medical Center | Bonucelli U.,University of Pisa | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Neurodegeneration | Year: 2012

Background: The search for biomarkers in Parkinsons disease (PD) is crucial to identify the disease early and monitor the effectiveness of neuroprotective therapies. We aim to assess whether a gene signature could be detected in blood from early/mild PD patients that could support the diagnosis of early PD, focusing on genes found particularly altered in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD. Results: The transcriptional expression of seven selected genes was examined in blood samples from 62 early stage PD patients and 64 healthy age-matched controls. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis identified five genes as optimal predictors of PD: p19 S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (odds ratio [OR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.90), huntingtin interacting protein-2 (OR 1.32; CI 1.08-1.61), aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A1 (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.99), 19 S proteasomal protein PSMC4 (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.89) and heat shock 70-kDa protein 8 (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.14-1.70). At a 0.5 cut-off the gene panel yielded a sensitivity and specificity in detecting PD of 90.3 and 89.1 respectively and the area under the receiving operating curve (ROC AUC) was 0.96. The performance of the five-gene classifier on the de novo PD individuals alone composing the early PD cohort (n = 38), resulted in a similar ROC with an AUC of 0.95, indicating the stability of the model and also, that patient medication had no significant effect on the predictive probability (PP) of the classifier for PD risk. The predictive ability of the model was validated in an independent cohort of 30 patients at advanced stage of PD, classifying correctly all cases as PD (100% sensitivity). Notably, the nominal average value of the PP for PD (0.95 (SD = 0.09)) in this cohort was higher than that of the early PD group (0.83 (SD = 0.22)), suggesting a potential for the model to assess disease severity. Lastly, the gene panel fully discriminated between PD and Alzheimers disease (n = 29). Conclusions: The findings provide evidence on the ability of a five-gene panel to diagnose early/mild PD, with a possible diagnostic value for detection of asymptomatic PD before overt expression of the disorder. © 2012 Molochnikov et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sofic E.,University of Sarajevo | Salkovic-Petrisic M.,University of Zagreb | Tahirovic I.,University of Sarajevo | Sapcanin A.,University of Sarajevo | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2015

Low intracerebroventricular (icv) doses of streptozotocin (STZ) produce regionally specific brain neurochemical changes in rats that are similar to those found in the brain of patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (sAD). Since oxidative stress is thought to be one of the major pathologic processes in sAD, catalase (CAT) activity was estimated in the regional brain tissue of animals treated intracerebroventricularly with STZ and the multitarget iron chelator, antioxidant and MAO-inhibitor M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline]. Five-day oral pre-treatment of adult male Wistar rats with 10 mg/kg/day M30 dose was followed by a single injection of STZ (1 mg/kg, icv). CAT activity was measured colorimetrically in the hippocampus (HPC), brain stem (BS) and cerebellum (CB) of the control, STZ-, M30- and STZ + M30-treated rats, respectively, 4 weeks after the STZ treatment. STZ-treated rats demonstrated significantly lower CAT activity in all three brain regions in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05 for BS and CB, p < 0.01 for HPC). M30 pre-treatment of the control rats did not influence the CAT activity in HPC and CB, but significantly increased it in BS (p < 0.05). M30 pre-treatment of STZ-treated rats significantly increased CAT activity in the HPC in comparison to the STZ treatment alone (p < 0.05) and normalized to the control values. These findings are in line with the assumption that reactive oxygen species contribute to the pathogenesis of STZ in a rat model of sAD and indicate that multifunctional iron chelators such as M30 might also have beneficial effects in this non-transgenic sAD model. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Mandel S.A.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Morelli M.,University of Cagliari | Halperin I.,The Israeli Psycological Association | Korczyn A.D.,Tel Aviv University
EPMA Journal | Year: 2010

Neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are considered disorders of multifactorial origin, inevitably progressive and having a long preclinical period. Therefore, the availability of biological markers or biomarkers (BMs) for early disease diagnosis will impact the management of AD and PD in several dimensions; it will 1) help to capture high-risk individuals before symptoms develop, a stage where prevention efforts might be expected to have their greatest impact; 2) provide a measure of disease progression that can be evaluated objectively, while clinical measures are much less accurate; 3) help to discriminate between true AD or PD and other causes of a similar clinical syndrome; 4) delineate pathophysiological processes responsible for the disease; 5) determine the clinical efficacy of novel, disease-modifying (neuroprotective) strategies. In the long run the availability of reliable BMs will significantly advance the research and therapeutics of AD and PD. © 2010 European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine.


Mandel S.A.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Fishman-Jacob T.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Youdim M.B.H.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research
Neurodegenerative Diseases | Year: 2012

Microarray-derived transcriptomic studies in human substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) samples from sporadic Parkinson's disease (SPD) cases have opened an avenue to concentrate on potential gene intersections or cross-talks along the dopaminergic (DAergic) neurodegenerative cascade in SPD. One emerging gene candidate identified by our group was SKP1A (p19, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A), found significantly decreased in the SNpc. It is part of the SCF (Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein) complex, the largest class of sophisticated ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligases, and can directly interact with Fbxo7, a gene defective in PARK15-linked PD. In vitro target validation by viral-mediated RNA interference revealed that the deficiency of Skp1 in a mouse SN-derived DAergic neuronal cell line potentiated the damage caused by exogenous insults implicated in PD pathology and caused the death of neurons undergoing differentiation, which developed Lewy body-like, α-synuclein-positive inclusions preceding cell death. Furthermore, recent animal studies show that site-directed intranigral stereotaxic injections of lentiviruses targeting SKP1A induce pathological and behavioral deficits in mice, supporting a significant role of Skp1 in SN DAergic neuronal survival in SPD. Thus, strategies aimed at increasing the activity or content of Skp1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat PD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Reznichenko L.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Kalfon L.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Amit T.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Youdim M.B.H.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Mandel S.A.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research
Neurodegenerative Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: The anti-Parkinson monoamine oxidase B inhibitor rasagiline appears to be the first neuroprotective disease-modifying therapy in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective: Using a polypharmacy paradigm, we tested whether the distinct neuroprotective pharmacological profile of rasagiline would complement that of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main antioxidant/iron chelator polyphenol constituent of green tea, and restore the neuronal loss and molecular targets damaged in animal parkinsonism. Methods/Results: We show by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses that the combination of rasagiline and EGCG, at subliminal doses which have no profound protective effect, acts synergistically to restore the nigrostriatal axis in N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. A detailed analysis revealed a complementary action of these drugs, differentially acting at MPTP-injured molecules/targets in the substantia nigra (SN): induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by rasagiline, increased membranal levels of the protein kinase C α-isoform by EGCG and a synergistic replenishment of their downstream effector, the serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B, suggesting that this kinase might represent one point of convergence of the distinct mechanisms of action of the drug cocktail. Conclusion: These results provide molecular evidence that activation of multiple brain targets by the combination of rasagiline and EGCG may synergistically contribute to the rescue of the dopamine neurons in the SN and replenishment of striatal dopamine. This may have important implications for rasagiline-treated PD patients who could further benefit from an adjunct administration of EGCG. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Mandel S.A.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Weinreb O.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Amit T.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Youdim M.B.H.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research
Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar | Year: 2012

Mounting evidence suggests that lifestyle factors, especially nutrition are essential factor for healthy ageing. However, as a result of the increase in life expectance, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's (AD and PD, respectively) are becoming an increasing burden, as aging is their main risk factor. Brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases of the elderly are characterized by oxidative damage, dysregulation of redox metals homeostasis and inflammation. Thus, it is not surprising that a large amount of drugs/agents in therapeutic use for these conditions are antioxidants/metal complexing, bioenergetic and anti-inflammatory agents. Natural plant polyphenols (flavonoids and non-flavonoids) are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and as such, are ideal nutraceuticals for neutralizing stress-induced free radicals and inflammation. Human epidemiological and new animal data suggest that green and black flavonoids named catechins, may help protecting the aging brain and reduce the incidence of dementia, AD and PD. This review will present salient features of the beneficial multipharmacological actions of black and green tea polyphenols in aging and neurodegeneration, and speculate on their potential in drug combination to target distinct pathologies as a therapeutic disease modification approach.


Mandel S.A.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Amit T.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Weinreb O.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research | Youdim M.B.H.,Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2011

During the last century, the world population has shown a staggering increase in its proportion of elderly members and thus, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD and PD, respectively) are becoming an increasing burden. Brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases of the elderly are characterized by oxidative damage, dysregulation of redox metals homeostasis and inflammation, supporting a therapeutic use of antioxidants. Natural plant polyphenols (flavonoids and non-flavonoids) are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and as such, are ideal nutraceuticals for neutralizing stress-induced free radicals and inflammation. Human epidemiological and new animal data suggest that green and black tea drinking (enriched in a class of flavonoids named catechins) may help protecting the aging brain and reduce the incidence of dementia, AD, and PD. Mechanistic studies on the neuroprotective/neuroregenerative effects of green tea catechins revealed that they act not only as antioxidants metal chelators, but also as modulators of intracellular neuronal signaling and metabolism, cell survival/death genes, and mitochondrial function. Thus, these dietary compounds are receiving significant attention as therapeutic multifunctional cytoprotective agents that simultaneously manipulate various brain targets. The scope of this review is to assess and put into perspective salient features of the beneficial brain action of natural, non-toxic green tea catechins in aging-impaired cognition and neurodegenerative diseases and to discuss a scenario concerning their potential, in drug combination, to target distinct pathologies, in the quest for a disease modifying therapy. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Eve Topf Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Expert opinion on drug discovery | Year: 2013

It is recognised that in both genetic and sporadic cases of Parkinsons disease (PD), the basis of its etiopathology resides in the particular vulnerability of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to oxidative stress and in the failure to adequately remove abnormal proteins. These observations have been confirmed recently by microarray transcriptomic studies in human SN from PD brains and have extended understanding of the molecular pathways underlying the PD pathology. This article reviews recent gene expression profiling studies in sporadic PD postmortem SN and highlights gene candidates as putative molecular signatures for early disease diagnosis. In addition, the application of transcriptomics and proteomics in the quest for multifunctional neuroprotective-neurorescue drugs that might possess disease-modifying action is discussed.

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