Time filter

Source Type

Ymittos Athens, Greece

Mantzaris G.J.,Evangelismos Hospital
Digestive Diseases | Year: 2016

In the last 20 years, the advent of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biologics has revolutionized the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the cost of biologic therapy now constitutes a large proportion of all healthcare expenditures. Patent expiration has sparked the healthcare industry's interest in the production of biosimilar (BS) versions of first generation biologics (originators [ORGs]) for market sharing. Having no access to the production line of the ORG, the sponsor of a BS needs to develop his own manufacturing process to produce a highly similar version of the reference product. Similarity in structure, physicochemical properties, biologic activity, efficacy and safety must be demonstrated by a comprehensive comparability exercise that includes the most sensitive in vitro tests, models and clinical condition with pre-defined equivalence margins. Extrapolation of indications, inter-changeability and automatic substitution between BS and ORG depend on a legal framework that varies between different agencies. It is not, therefore, unexpected that marketing authorization by the European Medicines Agency and other regulatory agencies (but not Health Canada) of CT-P13 (Remsima™/Inflectra™) as infliximab (Remicade®) BSs for IBD by indication extrapolation has led to stormy discussions in the IBD community and beyond regarding the scientific adequacy of this decision. However, as we now have to live with BSs, we hope that the impeding automatic substitution in association with post-marketing pharmacovigilance, full traceability, registries and new studies will settle the controversy and will increase the confidence of physicians and patients. A universally adopted legal framework should be implemented because, as expected, the non-anti-TNFα BSs will be soon on the stage. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Mantzaris G.J.,Evangelismos Hospital
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Crohn's disease is a life-long idiopathic inflammatory disease which affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and occasionally extra-intestinal organs. CD is thought to result from complex interactions between environmental factors, the gut microbes, and the genetic background and the immune system of the host. In the last decades research on these pathogenetic components, and especially on mucosal immunity, has led to the development of biologic agents and therapeutic strategies that have improved dramatically the treatment of CD but we are still far away from curing the disease. If there is a treatment for CD that will probably evolve through methodical steps towards integrating research on all the components involved in the pathogenesis of CD. This holistic and global approach may aid at unravelling the mysteries of CD and developing novel agents and therapeutic strategies which by targeting multiple pathogenetic pathways and at different stages of disease may lead hopefully to cure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Colombel J.F.,University of Lille Nord de France | Sandborn W.J.,Mayo Medical School | Reinisch W.,Vienna University Hospital | Mantzaris G.J.,Evangelismos Hospital | And 9 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy of infliximab monotherapy, azathioprine monotherapy, and the two drugs combined in 508 adults with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease who had not undergone previous immunosuppressive or biologic therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram of body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and then every 8 weeks plus daily oral placebo capsules; 2.5 mg of oral azathioprine per kilogram daily plus a placebo infusion on the standard schedule; or combination therapy with the two drugs. Patients received study medication through week 30 and could continue in a blinded study extension through week 50. RESULTS: Of the 169 patients receiving combination therapy, 96 (56.8%) were in corticosteroid-free clinical remission at week 26 (the primary end point), as compared with 75 of 169 patients (44.4%) receiving infliximab alone (P = 0.02) and 51 of 170 patients (30.0%) receiving azathioprine alone (P<0.001 for the comparison with combination therapy and P = 0.006 for the comparison with infliximab). Similar numerical trends were found at week 50. At week 26, mucosal healing had occurred in 47 of 107 patients (43.9%) receiving combination therapy, as compared with 28 of 93 patients (30.1%) receiving infliximab (P = 0.06) and 18 of 109 patients (16.5%) receiving azathioprine (P<0.001 for the comparison with combination therapy and P = 0.02 for the comparison with infliximab). Serious infections developed in 3.9% of patients in the combination-therapy group, 4.9% of those in the infliximab group, and 5.6% of those in the azathioprine group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease who were treated with infliximab plus azathioprine or infliximab monotherapy were more likely to have a corticosteroid-free clinical remission than those receiving azathioprine monotherapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00094458.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Patients with IBD and prior cancer are at increased risk of developing recurrent or de novo cancer. Depending on the type of malignancy, risk factors include IBD itself, age, environmental factors, genetic susceptibility and exposure to immunosuppressants (IMS), namely thiopurines, methotrexate and anti-TNFα biologics. The procarcinogenic effect of IMS depends on the type of drug and length of exposure. Thiopurines increase the rates of nonmelanoma skin cancer and lymphomas. Methotrexate is less harmful, but data are scarce. Evidence favoring the 'safety' of anti-TNF monotherapy is weak because most patients have been exposed to combinations of IMS prior to the development of malignancy. Anti-TNFα biologics may promote tumor proliferation and increase the risk of melanomas. Exclusion of these patients from trials with biologics, physician concerns or fear of incident cancers and medicolegal consequences, and patient concerns have led to a paucity of data regarding IMS treatment of patients with a prior malignancy. In the absence of guidelines, IMS should be avoided especially during the first 2 years after commencing cancer therapy. Depending on disease type, location and severity, 5-ASA, antibiotics, enteric nutrition, steroids alone or in combinations, seton placement, and 'curative' or 'diverting' surgery may allow for a crucial drug-holiday period before readministration of IMS. Preventive measures include smoking cessation, UV solar protection, annual skin examination and Pap test. If unavoidable, methotrexate should be the drug of first choice followed by anti-TNFα and then thiopurines. Patients should be managed on a case-by-case basis by a multidisciplinary team of experts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Peyrin-Biroulet L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Reinisch W.,University of Vienna | Colombel J.-F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Mantzaris G.J.,Evangelismos Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2014

Background and aims The Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) has been criticised due to heavy weighting on subjective clinical symptoms. C-reactive protein (CRP) and endoscopic lesions are objective measures of inflammation. We investigated the relationships between clinical disease activity, CRP normalisation and mucosal healing in Crohn's disease (CD). Methods The Study of Biologic and Immunomodulator Naive Patients in CD trial compared infliximab to azathioprine and to infliximab plus azathioprine in 508 CD patients. Mucosal healing was defined as the absence of mucosal ulceration at the week 26 ileocolonoscopy in a patient who had evidence of ulceration at the baseline ileocolonoscopy. Results 188 patients who had evaluable ileocolonoscopy with evidence of mucosal ulceration at baseline, CDAI scores and CRP values at baseline and week 26 were analysed. Seventy-two of 136 patients (53%) who had a CDAI<150 at week 26 achieved mucosal healing, and 38 of 90 patients (42%) achieved both CRP normalisation (CRP<0.8 mg/dL) and mucosal healing while in clinical remission. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CDAI to detect mucosal healing using 150 as a cut-off for CDAI were 65% and 53%, respectively. The PPV and NPV of CDAI to detect mucosal healing and CRP normalisation using 150 as a cut-off for CDAI were 79% and 42%, respectively. Conclusions Half the patients under azathioprine and/ or infliximab in clinical remission have endoscopic and/or CRP evidence of residual active CD, whereas other patients with endoscopic and CRP normalisation have persistent clinical symptoms. Clinical symptoms as scored by CDAI are not a reliable measure of the underlying inflammation.

Discover hidden collaborations