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Firoozfar F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mosa Kazemi S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shemshad K.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Baniardalani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2012

Background & objectives: The treatment of wounds with live green bottle fly larvae is receiving considerable attention in many countries. Laboratory rearing of Lucilia sericata is crucially important for the treatment of wounds. Study design: The study was carried out for mass rearing of green bottle flies from April to November 2010. Hand catch and net trap baited with beef and cattle liver were used to collect adult flies from the field. The collected samples were placed in appropriately labeled tubes and sent to the laboratory. Adult stage flies reared in the insectary were used for species identification using specific keys. Results: A total of 89 flies (55 females and 34 males) were collected from Hashtgerd area. In the first generation, 299 flies were produced in the laboratory including 105 (35.12%) males, and 194 (64.88%) females. The female/ male sex ratio was 1.61 for parents, whereas it was 1.84, 1.30 for F1 and F2 generations respectively. In total, 432 flies were reared in F3 generation including 173 (40.04%) males, and 259 (59.96%) females, and the sex ratio was 1.49. Conclusion: Setting up the mass rearing of sheep blowfly at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences is an important step in producing candidate flies for the treatment of myiasis by maggot therapy in future. Source


Rafinejad J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rafinejad J.,Evaluation Management and Development Center | Shemshad K.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Banafshi O.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2012

Tick-borne relapsing fever is an acute infectious disease transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tholozani, and it is a notifiable disease in Kurdistan Province, Iran. This cross-sectional survey was carried out from 2000 to 2004. The main aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of tick-borne relapsing fever in Kurdistan Province. The prevalence and incidence of tick-borne relapsing fever was monitored by daily clinical surveillance and by thin and thick blood smears of individuals with a fever. In confirmed cases, there was febrile illness, and spirochetes were identified on smears of peripheral blood. A field survey on presence of Ornithodoros tholozani in Bijar county villages was carried out and investigated for the detection of Borrelia spp. A total number of 97 cases including 88 cases from rural areas and 9 cases from urban areas were recorded over 5 years. Epidemiological studies on O. tholozani ticks collected from the several locations of villages indicated that 2 of the 20 studied villages (10%) were infested by the vector tick, O. tholozani. The presence of O. tholozani in most villages investigated and its infection rate suggest that tick-borne relapsing fever is a common cause of fever in most rural areas of Kurdistan Province. Results of the study demonstrate that tick-borne relapsing fever is under-recognized and under-reported, and the pathogens may be wrongly identified as malaria parasites. The study showed that tick-borne relapsing fever should be considered as an important public health priority in the study area. Source


Shemshad M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Shemshad K.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rafinejad J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rafinejad J.,Evaluation Management and Development Center
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

The aims of this study were to assess factors associated with KAPs, to evaluate grade shepherds and herdsmen's knowledge about tick and microbiological agents transmitted by ticks as well as their prevention measures, to evaluate personal hygiene practices and to provide useful information for designing effective tick-borne microbiological diseases control programs. The descriptive study was carried out and interviewed in 66 herd's including a total of 72 shepherds and herdsmen in 35 villages distributed all over the Qazvin province. Knowledge about tick-borne microbiological diseases, routes of their transmission, prevalence rate was unsatisfactory and this was significantly associated with the educational level (p ≤ 0.001). Most of them weren't aware about such diseases. Nonparametric correlations test showed that knowledge of tick-borne microbiological diseases was significantly higher among young shepherds compared with olds (p ≤ 0.001). Health center and veterinary organizations staffs should disseminate relevant information about tick-borne microbiological diseases to help community members to be involved more in tick and tick-borne microbiological disease control. Source


Vahabi A.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | Vahabi A.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Shemshad K.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Sayyadi M.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area. Source


Shemshad M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Shemshad K.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Sedaghat M.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shokri M.,Parasitic and Protozoan Diseases Control Office | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods: Nearly about 2 638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results: The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan's livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions: The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken. Source

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