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Gwalior, India

Ramakrishna C.,Evaluation Facility | Krishna R.,Evaluation Facility | Saini B.,Evaluation Facility | Gopi T.,Evaluation Facility | And 2 more authors.
Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements | Year: 2016

A simple and efficient oxidative decontamination method was developed for sulfur mustard (HD), a potential chemical warfare agent. The method involves treatment of chemical warfare agent HD and its simulants, i.e., dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide with ozone gas at ambient conditions in acetonitrile solvent. Ozone gas readily oxidizes sulfur mustard in a controlled manner to give its corresponding nontoxic sulfoxide. This transformation is selective and takes place even at subzero temperatures. The oxidation products of HD and its simulants were monitored and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Ramakrishna C.,Evaluation Facility | Krishna R.,Evaluation Facility | Gopi T.,Evaluation Facility | Swetha G.,Evaluation Facility | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2016

Zeolite-13X-supported Fe (Fe/zeolite-13X) catalysts with various Fe contents were prepared by the wet impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms to estimate the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas and Barrett-Joyner-Hanlenda pore size distributions. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 were used to investigate the textural properties of the Fe/zeolite-13X catalysts. Their catalytic activities were determined for the complete oxidation of 1,4-dioxane using air as the oxidant in a fixed-bed flow reactor in the temperature range 100-400 °C. The influences of various process parameters, such as reaction temperature, metal loading, and gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), on the dioxane removal efficiency by catalytic oxidation were investigated. The stability of the catalyst was tested at 400°C by performing time-on-stream analysis for 50 h. The Fe/zeolite-13X catalyst with 6 wt% Fe exhibited the best catalytic activity among the Fe/zeolite-13X catalysts at 400°C and a GHSV of 24000 h-1, with 97% dioxane conversion and 95% selectivity for the formation of carbon oxides (CO and CO2). Trace amounts (< 3%) of acetaldehyde, ethylene glycol monoformate, ethylene glycol diformate, 1,4-dioxane-2-ol, 1,4-dioxane-2- one, and 2-methoxy-1,3-dioxalane were also formed as degradation products. A plausible degradation mechanism is proposed based on the products identified by GC-MS analysis. © 2016 Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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