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News Article | September 20, 2016

« GENIVI Alliance launches new open source vehicle simulator project | Main | Univ. Houston, Caltech team develops new earth-abundant, cost-effective catalyst for water-splitting » The US Navy has completed flight testing of a 100% advanced biofuel in the EA-18G “Green Growler” at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. The US Navy is a leader in incorporating alternative fuel into operational supplies, in order to increase mission capability and flexibility. The catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) process 100% alternative fuel performed as expected during a ground test 30 August at NAWCAD’s Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), followed by the first test flight 1 September, said Rick Kamin, energy and fuels lead for Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR). Kamin also leads the alternative fuel test and qualification program for the Navy. CHCJ-5, the 100% drop-in renewable jet fuel tested, is produced by Florida-based Applied Research Associates (ARA) and Chevron Lummus Global. (Earlier post.) ARA’s process uses the same feedstocks as the Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) 50% advanced biofuel blend previously approved by the Navy, but uses a unique conversion process that provides a fully synthetic fuel that does not need to be blended, Kamin said. The fuel contains high-density aromatic, cycloparaffin, and isoparaffin hydrocarbons. ARA and Chevron Lummus Global (CLG) developed the Biofuels ISOCONVERSION (BIC) process based on ARA’s patented, novel Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (CH) process and CLG’s hydroprocessing technology. CHCJ-5 was developed as a variation of the commercial ReadiJet with the intention to meet the Navy’s JP-5 jet fuel spec and qualification protocols. The fuels team has evaluated five alternative sources for JP-5 and four F-76 sources since SECNAV kicked-off the program in 2009. The team, however, was already researching advanced biofuels in response to interest from the US Air Force and the commercial airline industry in 2008. From takeoff to landing, you couldn't tell any difference. The information presented to us in the airplane is pretty simplified but, as far as I could tell, the aircraft flew completely the same as [petroleum-based] JP-5 for the whole flight. —Lt. Cmdr. Bradley Fairfax, project officer and test pilot with Air Test and Evaluation Squadron (VX) 23, after the first test flight 1 September Using the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division’s (NAWCAD) Real-time Telemetry Processing System (RTPS) at the Atlantic Test Ranges, flight test engineer Mary Picard monitored the ground and test flights and confirmed Fairfax's observations. That’s the technical premise of the Navy’s alternative fuels test and qualification program: the JP-5 produced from alternative sources must be invisible to the user, said Rick Kamin, energy and fuels lead for Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR). The fuels program supports SECNAV’s operational energy goal to increase the use of alternative fuels afloat by 2020. The Navy fuels team is collaborating with commercial activities such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the owner of commercial fuel specifications and the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI), which seeks to enhance energy security and environmental sustainability for aviation through jet fuel produced from alternatives to petroleum, Kamin said.

Ramakrishna C.,Evaluation Facility | Krishna R.,Evaluation Facility | Gopi T.,Evaluation Facility | Swetha G.,Evaluation Facility | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2016

Zeolite-13X-supported Fe (Fe/zeolite-13X) catalysts with various Fe contents were prepared by the wet impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms to estimate the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas and Barrett-Joyner-Hanlenda pore size distributions. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 were used to investigate the textural properties of the Fe/zeolite-13X catalysts. Their catalytic activities were determined for the complete oxidation of 1,4-dioxane using air as the oxidant in a fixed-bed flow reactor in the temperature range 100-400 °C. The influences of various process parameters, such as reaction temperature, metal loading, and gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), on the dioxane removal efficiency by catalytic oxidation were investigated. The stability of the catalyst was tested at 400°C by performing time-on-stream analysis for 50 h. The Fe/zeolite-13X catalyst with 6 wt% Fe exhibited the best catalytic activity among the Fe/zeolite-13X catalysts at 400°C and a GHSV of 24000 h-1, with 97% dioxane conversion and 95% selectivity for the formation of carbon oxides (CO and CO2). Trace amounts (< 3%) of acetaldehyde, ethylene glycol monoformate, ethylene glycol diformate, 1,4-dioxane-2-ol, 1,4-dioxane-2- one, and 2-methoxy-1,3-dioxalane were also formed as degradation products. A plausible degradation mechanism is proposed based on the products identified by GC-MS analysis. © 2016 Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ramakrishna C.,Evaluation Facility | Krishna R.,Evaluation Facility | Saini B.,Evaluation Facility | Gopi T.,Evaluation Facility | And 2 more authors.
Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements | Year: 2016

A simple and efficient oxidative decontamination method was developed for sulfur mustard (HD), a potential chemical warfare agent. The method involves treatment of chemical warfare agent HD and its simulants, i.e., dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide with ozone gas at ambient conditions in acetonitrile solvent. Ozone gas readily oxidizes sulfur mustard in a controlled manner to give its corresponding nontoxic sulfoxide. This transformation is selective and takes place even at subzero temperatures. The oxidation products of HD and its simulants were monitored and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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