Ev. Hospital Bielefeld EvKB

Bielefeld, Germany

Ev. Hospital Bielefeld EvKB

Bielefeld, Germany

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Von Wintersdorff C.J.H.,Maastricht University | Wolffs P.F.G.,Maastricht University | Savelkoul P.H.M.,Maastricht University | Savelkoul P.H.M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
Future Microbiology | Year: 2016

Aim: We investigated the longitudinal development of several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of the infant gut resistome during the first months after birth. Materials & methods: Fecal samples from 120 infants collected at the ages of 5, 13 and 31 weeks were analyzed and subjected to qPCR for the detection of several ARGs. Results: The prevalence of ARGs significantly increased for ermB, tetM and tetQ, while it decreased for aac(6′)-aph(2′). Birth mode and breastfeeding significantly affected tetQ prevalence. Correlations to bacterial taxa suggest that fluctuations in some ARGs are (partly) attributed to shifts in bacteroides colonization rates. Conclusion: Acquisition of ARGs in the gut microbiota occurs shortly after birth and resistome composition fluctuates over the course of several months, reflecting changes in microbial community structure. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd.


PubMed | Charité - Medical University of Berlin, Ev. Hospital Bielefeld EvKB and Maastricht University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Future microbiology | Year: 2016

We investigated the longitudinal development of several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of the infant gut resistome during the first months after birth.Fecal samples from 120 infants collected at the ages of 5, 13 and 31 weeks were analyzed and subjected to qPCR for the detection of several ARGs.The prevalence of ARGs significantly increased for ermB, tetM and tetQ, while it decreased for aac(6)-aph(2). Birth mode and breastfeeding significantly affected tetQ prevalence. Correlations to bacterial taxa suggest that fluctuations in some ARGs are (partly) attributed to shifts in bacteroides colonization rates.Acquisition of ARGs in the gut microbiota occurs shortly after birth and resistome composition fluctuates over the course of several months, reflecting changes in microbial community structure.


Ebner F.,Free University of Berlin | Hepworth M.R.,Free University of Berlin | Hepworth M.R.,University of Pennsylvania | Rausch S.,Free University of Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Background Gastrointestinal nematodes are currently being evaluated as a novel therapeutic in the treatment of chronic human inflammatory disorders, due to their unique ability to induce immunoregulatory pathways in their hosts. In particular, administration of ova from the pig whipworm Trichuris suis (T. suis; TSO) has been proposed for the treatment of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Despite these advances, the biological pathways through which TSO therapy modulates the host immune system in the context of human disease remain undefined.Methods We characterized the dominant proteins present in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of first-stage (L1) T. suis larvae (Ts E/S) using LC-MS/MS analysis and examined the immunosuppressive properties of whole larval Ts E/S in vitro and in a murine model of allergic airway disease.Results Administration of larval Ts E/S proteins in vivo during the allergen sensitization phase was sufficient to suppress airway hyperreactivity, bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrate and allergen-specific IgE production. Three proteins in larval Ts E/S were unambiguously identified. The immunomodulatory function of larval Ts E/S was found to be partially dependent on the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10.Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that the released proteins of larval T. suis have significant immunomodulatory capacities and efficiently dampen allergic airway hyperreactivity. Thus, the therapeutic potential of defined larval E/S proteins should be exploited for the treatment of human allergic disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Toepper M.,Ev. Hospital Bielefeld EvKB | Toepper M.,Justus Liebig University | Markowitsch H.J.,Bielefeld University | Gebhardt H.,Justus Liebig University | And 5 more authors.
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2014

Healthy aging is accompanied by a decline in spatial working memory that is related to functional cerebral changes within the spatial working memory network. In the last decade, important findings were presented concerning the location (e.g., prefrontal), kind (e.g., 'underactivation,' 'overactivation'), and meaning (e.g., functional deficits, compensation) of these changes. Less is known about how functional connections between specific brain regions are affected by age and how these changes are related to behavioral performance. To address these issues, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine retrieval-related brain activation and functional connectivity in 18 younger individuals and 18 older individuals. We assessed working memory with a modified version of the Corsi Block-Tapping test, which requires the storage and reproduction of spatial target sequences. Analyses of group differences in brain activation and functional connectivity included comparisons between younger individuals, older individuals, older high-performers, and older low-performers. In addition, we conducted a functional connectivity analysis by using a seed region approach. In comparison to younger individuals, older individuals showed lower right-hemispheric dorsolateral prefrontal activation and lower functional connectivity between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex. Older high-performers showed higher right dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex activation than older low-performers, as well as higher functional connectivity between these brain regions. The present results suggest age-related reductions of prefrontal activation during spatial working memory retrieval. Moreover, task-related functional connectivity appears to be lower in older adults. Performance accuracy in older adults is associated with right dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex activation, and with the functional connection between these regions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Toepper M.,Ev. Hospital Bielefeld EvKB | Toepper M.,Justus Liebig University | Markowitsch H.J.,Bielefeld University | Gebhardt H.,Justus Liebig University | And 5 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Whereas the role of the hippocampus for spatial learning and long-term memory is largely undisputed, there is less evidence for a participation of hippocampal structures in spatial working memory operations. In an fMRI study (functional magnetic resonance imaging), we therefore examined the role of the hippocampus during spatial working memory performance. Nineteen healthy volunteers performed a modified version of the Corsi Block-Tapping test (CBT) during fMRI. The CBT is a neuropsychological instrument that is widely used in clinical settings. It requires the storage and subsequent reproduction of spatial target sequences. Brain activity during CBT performance has rarely been examined in the past, at least not the hemodynamic correlates. In a baseline condition, participants processed a number of subsequently presented targets as in the CBT condition. The only difference was that targets did not change their location. As compared to baseline activity, the right hippocampus showed more activation during the CBT condition. In addition, whole-brain analysis showed working memory related frontal and parietal brain activation. The results indicate that hippocampal structures contribute to serial working memory encoding of spatial locations in the human brain. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Ev Hospital Bielefeld EvKB
Type: | Journal: Brain research | Year: 2010

Whereas the role of the hippocampus for spatial learning and long-term memory is largely undisputed, there is less evidence for a participation of hippocampal structures in spatial working memory operations. In an fMRI study (functional magnetic resonance imaging), we therefore examined the role of the hippocampus during spatial working memory performance. Nineteen healthy volunteers performed a modified version of the Corsi Block-Tapping test (CBT) during fMRI. The CBT is a neuropsychological instrument that is widely used in clinical settings. It requires the storage and subsequent reproduction of spatial target sequences. Brain activity during CBT performance has rarely been examined in the past, at least not the hemodynamic correlates. In a baseline condition, participants processed a number of subsequently presented targets as in the CBT condition. The only difference was that targets did not change their location. As compared to baseline activity, the right hippocampus showed more activation during the CBT condition. In addition, whole-brain analysis showed working memory related frontal and parietal brain activation. The results indicate that hippocampal structures contribute to serial working memory encoding of spatial locations in the human brain.

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