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Cambridge, MA, United States

Andersen M.B.,Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry | Croy C.H.,Eli Lilly and Company | Dencker D.,Copenhagen University | Werge T.,Research Institute of Biological Psychiatry | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4 -preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. © 2015 Andersen et al.

Levin E.D.,Duke University | Wells C.,Duke University | Johnson J.E.,Duke University | Rezvani A.H.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Abstract A wider diversity of drug treatments to aid smoking cessation is needed to help tailor the most efficacious treatment for different types of smokers. This study was conducted to determine whether amitifadine, which inhibits re-uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, would decrease nicotine self-administration at doses that do not cause adverse side effects. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer nicotine intravenous (IV) and were given acute doses of amitifadine in a repeated measures counterbalanced design. Effects of amitifadine on locomotor activity and food motivated responding were also evaluated. Chronic amitifadine effects were also examined. The 30 mg/kg amitifadine dose significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. The 5 and 10 mg/kg doses reduced nicotine self-administration during the first 15 min of the session when the greatest amount of nicotine was self-administered. The 30 mg/kg amitifadine dose, but not the lower doses caused a significant reduction in locomotor activity averaged over the one-hour session and reduced food motivated responding. The 10 mg/kg dose caused hypoactivity at the beginning of the session, but 5 mg/kg did not cause any hypoactivity. The effects of chronic amitifadine treatment (10 mg/kg) over the course of 15 sessions was also determined. Amitifadine caused a significant reduction in nicotine self-administration, which was not seen to diminish over two consecutive weeks of treatment and a week after enforced abstinence. Amitifadine significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. This prompts further research to determine if amitifadine might be an effective treatment for smoking cessation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

McKinzie D.L.,Eli Lilly and Company | Bymaster F.P.,Euthymics Bioscience
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Schizophrenia is a devastating disease with several broad symptom clusters and the current monoamine-based treatments do not adequately treat the disease, especially negative and cognitive symptoms. A proposed alternative approach for treating schizophrenia is through the use of compounds that activate certain muscarinic receptor subtypes, the so-called muscarinic cholinergic hypothesis theory. This theory has been revitalized with a number of recent and provocative findings including postmortem reports in schizophrenia patients showing decreased numbers of muscarinic M 1 and M 4 receptors in brain regions associated with schizophrenia as well as decreased muscarinic receptors in an in vivo imaging study. Studies with M 4 knockout mice have shown that there is a reciprocal relationship between M 4 and dopamine receptor function, and a number of muscarinic agonists have shown antidopaminergic activity in a variety of preclinical assays predictive of antipsychotic efficacy in the clinic. Furthermore, the M 1/M 4 preferring partial agonist xanomeline has been shown to have antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive activity in preclinical models and in clinical trials to decrease psychotic-like behaviors in Alzheimer's patients and positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we propose that an agonist with M 1 and M 4 interactions would effectively treat core symptom clusters associated with schizophrenia. Currently, research is focused on developing subtype-selective muscarinic agonists and positive allosteric modulators that have reduced propensity for parasympathetic side-effects, but retain the therapeutic benefit observed with their less selective predecessors. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Liu B.,Lilly Research Laboratories | Croy C.H.,Lilly Research Laboratories | Hitchcock S.A.,Lilly Research Laboratories | Allen J.R.,Lilly Research Laboratories | And 19 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

The observation that cholinergic deafferentation of circuits projecting from forebrain basal nuclei to frontal and hippocampal circuits occurs in Alzheimer's disease has led to drug-targeting of muscarinic M1 receptors to alleviate cognitive symptoms. The high homology within the acetylcholine binding domain of this family however has made receptor-selective ligand development challenging. This work presents the synthesis scheme, pharmacokinetic and structure-activity-relationship study findings for M1-selective ligand, LY593093. Pharmacologically the compound acts as an orthosteric ligand. The homology modeling work presented however will illustrate that compound binding spans from the acetylcholine pocket to the extracellular loops of the receptor, a common allosteric vestibule for the muscarinic protein family. Altogether LY593093 represents a growing class of multi-topic ligands which interact with the receptors in both the ortho- and allosteric binding sites, but which exert their activation mechanism as an orthosteric ligand. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Euthymics Bioscience | Date: 2014-07-01

The present disclosure relates to novel methods of treating pain comprising administering to a human in need thereof an effective amount of (1R,5S)-(+)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, in free and/or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, substantially free of the corresponding () enantiomer, wherein the human is a heavy drinker and/or binge drinker and/or wherein the human has compromised liver function and/or wherein the human is a codeine non-responder. The present disclosure also relates to a method of treating pain comprising concurrently or sequentially administering to a patient in need thereof an effective amount of (a) (1R,5S)-(+)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, in free and/or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, and (b) acetaminophen. The present disclosure also relates to a method of treating pain comprising simultaneously or sequentially administering to a patient in need thereof an effective amount of (a) (1R,5S)-(+)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, in free and/or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, and (b) a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

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