European University of Brittany
Rennes, France

The European University of Brittany , located in Rennes, France, is a center for higher education, academic research and doctoral studies located over multiple campuses in the Academie de Rennes. It includes a doctoral college that federates university institutes, engineering schools and research centres. Wikipedia.

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Youinou P.,European University of Brittany | Renaudineau Y.,European University of Brittany
Critical Reviews in Immunology | Year: 2011

The recently recognized importance of B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) raises the question as to whether those expressing CD5 predominate over the remaining B lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of this disease. Owing to their B B-cell receptor (BCR) polyspecificity, autoantibody production has been originally ascribed to CD5-positive Bl lymphocytes. Instead, it has since been established that high-affinity autoantibodies derive from CD5-negative B2 cells. Even worse, in the light of current findings, CD5-positive B cells have been considered to play a paradoxical role in preventing, rather than inducing, autoimmunity. In this context, there is evidence that the membrane expression of CD5 is regulated, and, to this end, a genetic mechanism has been described, based on the selection between exon 1A (El A) and exon IB (E1B). The full-length protein variant, encoded by ElA-cd5, translocates the phosphatase SHP-1 to the vicinity of the BCR, raises its threshold, and thereby limits the response of autoreactive B cells. In contrast, the truncated variant, encoded by ElB-cd5, remains in the cytoplasm, along with SHP1. Normally, EIB E1B is silenced by methylation and its product degraded in the proteosomes. Hence, a defect in the DNA methyl transfer favors the development of SLE, by preventing the effects of SHP-1. © 2011 by Begell House, Inc.

Alfalou A.,Laboratory LBISEN | Brosseau C.,European University of Brittany
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

We propose and analyze a dual encryption/decryption scheme, motivated by recent interest in polarization encoding. Compared to standard optical encryption methods, which are based on phase and amplitude manipulation, this encryption procedure relying on Mueller-Stokes formalism provides large flexibility in the key encryption design. The effectiveness of our algorithm is discussed, thanks to a numerical simulation of the polarization encryption/ decryption procedure of a 256 gray-level image. Of additional special interest is the immunity of this encryption algorithm to brute force attacks. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Alfalou A.,Laboratory L BISEN | Brosseau C.,European University of Brittany
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

We report on an algorithm to compress and encrypt simultaneously multiple images (target images). This method, which is based upon a specific spectral multiplexing (fusion without overlapping) of the multiple images, aims to achieve a single encrypted image, at the output plane of our system, that contains all information needed to reconstruct the target images. For that purpose, we divide the Fourier plane of the image to transmit into two types of area, i.e., specific and common areas to each target image. A segmentation criterion taking into account the rms duration of each target image spectrum is proposed. This approach, which consists of merging the input target images together (in the Fourier plane) allows us to reduce the information to be stored and/or transmitted (compression) and induce noise on the output image (encryption). To achieve a good encryption level, a first key image (containing biometric information and providing the intellectual property of the target images) is used. A second encryption key is inserted in the Fourier plane to ensure a relevant phase distribution of the different merged spectra. We also discuss how the encoding information can be optimized by minimizing the number of bits required to encode each pixel. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Mickael D.,European University of Brittany
Waste Management | Year: 2014

Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Brosseau C.,European University of Brittany
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2011

This review paper describes various emerging technologies and relevant physical issues in plastic nanoelectronics using carbonaceous materials. Examples range from mechanically flexible carbon (C) nanotube thin-film transistors, flexible energy storage devices, electronic textile, multifunctional and responsive elastomers, artificial skin, flexible gas sensors, to solar cells. In these and other systems, mechanical design is as important as circuit design. This and recent research in stretchable C nanoelectronics indicate that further progress requires multidisciplinary programs, incorporating nearly every field of traditional study, from chemistry, materials science, computation, and physics to mechanical and electrical engineering. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Alfalou A.,Institute Superieur Of Lelectronique Et Du Numerique Isen Brest | Brosseau C.,European University of Brittany
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

We demonstrate a novel technique for face recognition. Our approach relies on the performances of a strongly discriminating optical correlation method along with the robustness of the independent component analysis (ICA) model. Simulations were performed to illustrate how this algorithm can identify a face with images from the Pointing Head Pose Image Database. While maintaining algorithmic simplicity, this approach based on ICA representation significantly increases the true recognition rate compared to that obtained using our previously developed all-numerical ICA identity recognition method and another method based on optical correlation and a standard composite filter. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Salaun P.Y.,European University of Brittany
Chest | Year: 2011

We designed a simple and integrated diagnostic algorithm for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Diagnosis was based on clinical probability assessment, plasma D-dimer testing, then sequential testing to include lower limb venous compression ultrasonography, ventilation perfusion lung scan, and chest multidetector CT (MDCT) imaging. We included 321 consecutive patients presenting at Brest University Hospital in Brest, France, with clinically suspected PE and positive d-dimer or high clinical probability. Patients in whom VTE was deemed absent were not given anticoagulants and were followed up for 3 months. Detection of DVT by ultrasonography established the diagnosis of PE in 43 (13%). Lung scan associated with clinical probability was diagnostic in 243 (76%) of the remaining patients. MDCT scan was required in only 35 (11%) of the patients. The 3-month thromboembolic risk in patients not given anticoagulants, based on the results of the diagnostic protocol, was 0.53% (95% CI, 0.09-2.94). A diagnostic strategy combining clinical assessment, d-dimer, ultrasonography, and lung scan gave a noninvasive diagnosis in the majority of outpatients with suspected PE and appeared to be safe.

Challamel N.,European University of Brittany
Composite Structures | Year: 2013

This paper covers a large variety of theoretical generic beam models including some small length scale terms. Strain gradient elasticity and Eringen's nonlocal elasticity models are applied to beam mechanics including Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko and higher-order shear beam models. The buckling and vibration behaviour of these generalized shear beam models is investigated for pinned-pinned boundary conditions. The variational formulation of these enriched beam models is given leading to consistent variationally-based boundary conditions. The paper first starts with the axial behaviour of gradient or nonlocal elasticity bars. The beam behaviour is then analyzed using a unified framework, where the kinematics classification is presented from a generalized gradient constitutive law. It is shown that higher-order shear beam models can be classified in a common gradient elasticity Timoshenko theory, whatever the shear strain distribution assumptions over the cross section. We show the kinematics equivalence between Bickford-Reddy higher-order shear beam model and Shi-Voyiadjis higher-order shear beam model, even if both models are statically not equivalent (from the stress calculation). This equivalence is highlighted on buckling and vibrations results. The model valid for macrostructures is generalized for micro or nanostructures using some nonlocal and gradient theories to account for small scale effects, in the axial and in the bending directions. We both use the Eringen's based integral theory and the gradient theory to derive the buckling and vibration differential equations. These two theories can be connected using a generalized hybrid nonlocal law. Eringen's model is compared to a stress gradient model, whereas the gradient elasticity theory is typically a strain gradient theory. The nonlocal framework is also developed in a variational consistent framework, for bending, vibrations and buckling configurations. The nonlocality is shown to be equivalent to higher-order inertia modelling for the dynamics analysis. Buckling and vibrations solutions are presented for the nonlocal higher-order beam/column models with pinned-pinned boundary conditions. We finally analyse the main characteristics of both nonlocal and gradient theories to capture the small scale effects for micro and nanostructures. Stiffening or softening effect of gradient or nonlocal elasticity models are discussed for the buckling and the vibrations analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kouadri-David A.,European University of Brittany | Kouadri-David A.,CNRS Civil and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

This investigation focuses on the feasibility of heterogeneous welded joints between DP600 steel and aluminium 6082. The process adopted used a power laser in two modes: keyhole welding and laser-induced reactive wetting. All the results of the study show that the use of laser welding of galvanised sheets, in the keyhole mode, can achieve a joint shear strength of 140. MPa by optimising the process parameters and controlling the penetration, which must be limited to 600. μm. Another key factor with this welding method is control of the inter-sheet gap, which was achieved by using a clamping system that ensured a rigid joint while maintaining a constant gap sufficient to allow the escape of zinc vapour. This approach enabled an increase in shear strengths of 200. MPa to be obtained and the zinc acted as a beneficial factor to the welding process. With the laser-induced reactive wetting mode, the joint between galvanised sheets was more brittle because of the formation of a non-uniform reaction layer. With this mode, the presence of zinc is a factor that limits the growth of the reaction layer and, at the same time, leads to a mechanical deterioration of the joint; test results indicate that mechanical strength was limited to about 80. MPa. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-COFUND | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-COFUND-2008 | Award Amount: 1.05M | Year: 2010

The goal of the proposal is to use, new capabilities offered to the French research and higher education institutions by two recent and successive laws. The PRES are Higher Education and Research Cluster. The PRES, as structural organisations, are one of these new possibilities; and among the other new possibilities, the purpose is also to use new block of competencies in terms of human resources and financial management which enhance the capacity of universities, as well as university clusters, to plan out research strategies, as well as policies, in a reinforced autonomy. The proposal, launched by the PRES called UEB, is to create a programme, very open in terms of topics, covering a large academic area which widely removes the border from its own academic or specific area. This proposal is based on a new development of a well known process used in French universities, i.e. the guest professors scheme. In the new context, the practice of guest professors can be highly improved to strengthen local or regional academic research policies. Fundamentally based on individual fellowships applications, the Rbuce-W programme nevertheless points up the implementation of Chairs of Excellence packages, including one advanced researcher, two postdoc researchers, all in mobility position, and research costs, for a two years long period. However, even if the packages will each include three researchers, the calls for proposals, will concern individual applications. Such teams and packages are viewed as essential tools in the new French academics research context. In order to ensure a French national covering without multiplying applications, the Rbuce-W programme is also devoted to all the individual members of the PRES as well as other French academic bodies which will be of course invited in this case to provide their own financial support. For other PRES and a university are following a similar approach in order to cover all the French territory.

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