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Dickov V.,European University at Belgrade
Central European Journal of Medicine

The basis of the discovery process for a new pharmaceutical product is in understanding the mechanism of action of a particular disease or processes in the organism related to the disease and/or its symptoms. The essence of a pharmaceutical is in the active ingredient capable of affecting processes within the organism beneficially. The discovery process includes a particular sequence of activities of various profiles of experts, about which various authors agree. The history of pharmaceutical industry (and pharmacy) is measured from one discovery of an innovative drug or approach to treatment of a particular disease to the next one. The cost of pharmaceutical products is one of the key causes of controversy related to this industry. Numerous cultures have proverbs expressing the opinion that health is priceless or that health is the greatest wealth. What if health does have a price? One of the basic premises of marketing is that price should reflect consumer value. © Versita Sp. z o.o. Source

Marinkovic V.D.,University of Belgrade | Sibalija T.V.,European University at Belgrade | Majstorovic V.D.,University of Belgrade | Tasic L.,University of Belgrade
Hemijska Industrija

International quality management standard (QMS) ISO 9001 became widely accepted as a framework for product and/or services quality improvement. There are recent research conducted in order to define relationships and effects between the applied QMS and financial and/or non-financial business parameters. The effects of the applied pharmaceutical quality system (PQS) on the business performances in Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industry are analyzed in this paper using multivariate linear regression analysis. The empirical data were collected using a survey that was performed among experts from the Serbian pharmaceutical- chemical industrial sector during 2010. An extensive questionnaire was used in the survey, grouping the questions in eight groups: Implementation of pharmaceutical quality system (AQ), Quality/strategy planning (QP), Human resource management (HR), Supply management (SM), Customer focus (CF), Process management (PM), Continuous improvement (CI), and Business results (BR). The primary goal of the research was to analyze the effects of the elements of the first seven groups (AQ, QP, HR, SM, CF, PM and CI) that present various aspects of the implementation of PQS, on the elements of business results (BR). Based on empirical data, regression relations were formed to present the effects of all considered elements of PQS implementation on the business performance parameters (BR). The positive effects of PQS implementation on the business performances such as the assessment of performance indicators, continual products and/or services quality improvement, and efficient problem solving, are confirmed in the presented research for the Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector. The results of the presented research will create a room for the improvement of the existing models in application, and for attracting interested parties that aim to commence this business standardization process. Hence, implementation of PQS is not only the regulatory requirement or advertising movement, but also a very important issue for the development and improvement of business performances. Source

Strippoli M.-P.F.,University of Bern | Frischer T.,Universitatsklinik For Kinder Und Jugendheilkunde | Barbato A.,University of Padua | Snijders D.,University of Padua | And 10 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal

The European Respiratory Society Task Force on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in children recently published recommendations for diagnosis and management. This paper compares these recommendations with current clinical practice in Europe. Questionnaires were returned by 194 paediatric respiratory centres caring for PCD patients in 26 countries. In most countries, PCD care was not centralised, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (2-9) patients treated per centre. Overall, 90% of centres had access to nasal or bronchial mucosal biopsy. Samples were analysed by electron microscopy (77%) and ciliary function tests (57%). Nasal nitric oxide was used for screening in 46% of centres and saccharine tests in 36%. Treatment approaches varied widely, both within and between countries. European region, size of centre and the country's general government expenditure on health partly defined availability of advanced diagnostic tests and choice of treatments. In conclusion, we found substantial heterogeneity in management of PCD within and between countries, and poor concordance with current recommendations. This demonstrates how essential it is to standardise management and decrease inequality between countries. Our results also demonstrate the urgent need for research: to simplify PCD diagnosis, to understand the natural history and to test the effectiveness of interventions. Copyright©ERS 2012. Source

Dickov V.,European University at Belgrade | Dickov A.,Institute of Psychiatry | Martinovic-Mitrovic S.,Institute of Psychiatry
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences

The issue of applying marketing on the pharmaceutical market has the features of subject-based approach, with the intention to appreciate the specific nature of the products, as well as the special characteristics of the complexly formed demand. The relevance of the issue is related to the aboveaverage performance of the pharmaceutical industry, its role in the generation of humanity's demographic transition, and specific development routes of marketing as a scientific and practical discipline. The sensitive nature of a pharmaceutical product on the one hand generates the intense legislation on this market, whereas on the other, the circumstances of its use generate a specific environment in which the production/consumption of the products of pharmaceutical industry is intensively reflected as a specific medical, cultural, economic and even political phenomenon. Source

Golusin M.,University of Novi Sad | Ivanovic O.M.,European University at Belgrade | Bagaric I.,University of Novi Sad | Vranjes S.,Tarkett
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field of energetic and energetic efficiency, and, as well as to promote and develop the sector of use of renewable sources of energy. On the other hand, Serbia is a country which largely depends on import of all forms of energy, which to a great extent affects its economic stability. Therefore, in Serbia the strategy for development of energetic was imposed and it considers all the aspects of development of energetic until 2015 and it also defines the priorities which can be mostly seen in the choice of forms of alternative sources of energy. These sources, based on some criteria, can be considered the most convenient for a gradual substitution of energy which is gotten from the conventional sources. Taking into account strategically defined goals and domestic potentials which are at disposal, as well as economic parameters, an alternative source of energy of basic importance for the future exploitation on the territory of Serbia geothermal energy, was chosen. The research points to the fact that Serbia will be capable to respond adequately to Kyoto protocol demands and to the European rules regarding the substitution of a certain amounts of fossil fuels by the fuel origin from the raw biological materials. The research defines the existent and non-existent capacities and the assessment of positive effects of usage of geothermal energy. At the moment, 160 long holes are being exploited whose water temperature is around 60 °C (140 °F) and their heat power reach 160 MJ/s. It was stated that adequate exploitation of existing and new geothermal sources a yearly would save about 500,000 tons of fossil fuels what is proportional to the 10% of the today's heating system. The total amount of heat accumulated at geothermal deposit sites in Serbia, up to 3 km of depth, is two times greater than the total amount of heat that may be generated by burring all available coal reserves in Serbia. Price of electrical energy produced from geothermal springs is estimated to be between 9.2 US cents/kWh and 11.5 US cents/kWh. In order to support exploitation of geothermal energy (as well as all other renewable sources of energy) the decision that all the producers of energy from renewable sources get a status of privileged producers were made. © 2009. Source

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