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Pozio E.,European Union
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2013

Nematodes of the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova (family Anisakidae) are zoonotic parasites for which marine mammals (e.g. whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, sea lions, walruses) act as final hosts, and crustaceans, cephalopods and fish as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts. In humans, the ingestion of Anisakidae larvae can result in infection with live larvae, an allergic reaction to Anisakidae allergens (even when dead larvae are ingested), or both. Worldwide, more than 2,000 infections are diagnosed in humans every year, yet most of the infections and allergic reactions are undiagnosed. A very high prevalence of anisakid larvae has been found in many commercially important species of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans. Preventive measures for anisakiosis focus on post-harvest handling. Source

Pozio E.,European Union | Zarlenga D.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2013

Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than nine different species and three additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentiation at the population level which in turn have demonstrably advanced epidemiological, immunological and genetic investigations. In like manner, molecular and genetic studies have permitted us to hypothesise biohistorical events leading to the worldwide dissemination of this genus, and to begin crystalising the evolution of Trichinella on a macro scale. The identification of species in countries and continents otherwise considered Trichinella-free has raised questions regarding host adaptation and associations, and advanced important findings on the biogeographical histories of its members. Using past reviews as a backdrop, we have ventured to present an up-to-date assessment of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology of the genus Trichinella with additional insights on host species, survival strategies in nature and the shortcomings of our current understanding of the epidemiology of the genus. In addition, we have begun compiling information available to date on genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and population studies of consequence in the hope we can build on this in years to come. © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Source

This paper provides the first report of the intersex (ovotestis) condition in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. A single specimen (10% of males sampled) presenting the condition was discovered as part of routine sampling, from the Weymouth Bay region of the English Channel, UK. The lobster presented externally as a male, but upon histological examination was seen to contain an ovotestis, containing elements of both male and female gonadal tissue. Previtellogenic oocytes were present in several otherwise normal seminiferous tubules throughout the testis. The seminiferous tubules were also engaged in the production of apparently normal sperm lineages, and mature spermatozoa were present within the tubule lumens. In some cases, oocytes were in direct contact with mature spermatozoa within the same seminiferous tubules. The significance of this finding is placed into context with a previous observation of elevated intersexuality in the congeneric species H. americanus collected from specific sites in Canadian waters. The potential mechanism for development of intersex in lobsters, which is probably related to a disrupted signalling to the germinal component of the testis from the decapod androgenic gland, may be an effect of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the marine environment. © The Crown 2012. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISIB-02-2014 | Award Amount: 1.99M | Year: 2015

AgriSPIN: creating SPace for INnovation The project name reflects the overall aim of this project: to strengthen support systems in creating space for innovating farmers. Innovative farmers are everywhere, but their environment determines the rate of success. The project aims to create more space for innovations, through amplifying good examples of innovation support systems and through multi-actor learning about ways to stimulate innovation and remove obstacles. The main target group is intermediates who connect initiators to other actors for involving them in creating innovations, such as farmers, knowledge workers, actors in the value chain, administrators, civil society groups, etc.. 11 European project partners are playing this intermediate role in their regional AKIS. 4 scientific partners complete the team. Each regional partner will host a Cross Visit. The visiting team, composed of project partners, studies interesting cases of agricultural innovations. The scientists provide sound methodology for making these visits valuable. Throughout the project period partners support each other in an emerging professional innovation network. They inspire each other and initiate improvements in their own systems. The project also addresses the institutional environment, involving public managers, administrators and policy makers. Case studies and lessons learned are made available to a wider public. Attention will be given to cultural and historical particularities, requiring tailor made solutions for every region. The scientists explore lessons to be generalised and added to the scientific discourse on knowledge brokers. Once the approach of joint learning through Cross Visits has been well tested and the professional network is functional, the project is ready for collaboration with other partners such as thematic networks and operational groups under the EIP as well as other interested regions in joint learning about innovation support systems.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISIB-02-2014 | Award Amount: 2.19M | Year: 2015

The overall aim of the thematic network OK-Net Arable is to improve the exchange of innovative and traditional knowledge among farmers, farm advisers and scientists to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping all over Europe, in order to satisfy future market demand. To achieve this, OK-Net Arable has three specific objectives: 1) to create a European network of well-functioning farmer innovation groups representing the best examples of co-innovation by farmers and researchers. The network of farmer innovation groups will serve to exchange experiences in the area of arable crop production and test the innovative end-user and education material developed in the project; 2) to digest and synthesize the considerable knowledge available from the reservoir of scientific and practical knowledge in the area of organic arable farming and to identify the best methodology in learning and knowledge exchange. Based on this easily understandable education and end-user material will be developed; 3) to create a platform for knowledge exchange across Europe unique in organic farming, offering both innovative education and end-user material as well as offering opportunities for farmer-to-farmer, advisor-to-advisor or researcher-to-advisor-to-farmer learning. The multi-actor approach is prominent in this proposal: (1) at EU level with scientific partners and farmers associations jointly coordinating the work packages; (2) on the local level with farmers, farm advisors and scientists cooperating in farmer innovation groups. The whole consortium covers in total 13 countries from all corners of Europe giving a well-balanced representation of different climate, geographical and socio-economic conditions.

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